Vampire Crab Care: 2 New Land Crab Species Found Among Pet Trade Animals

Geosesarma aurantium

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by CEphoto, Uwe Aranas

Various land crabs have long been available in the pet trade, but despite their brilliant colors and fascinating behaviors, few have caught on among terrarium keepers here in the USA. This changed a bit when several spectacularly-colored species, usually sold as Vampire Crabs or Red Devils, began showing up in the early 2000’s. Recent investigations into the natural history of these crabs resulted in the surprising finding that two species new to science have been kept and bred by hobbyists for at least 10 years!

 

Halloween Crab

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by (Bhny)

 

Crabs at the Bronx Zoo

I had long urged my bosses at the Bronx Zoo to pay more attention to terrestrial crabs, especially as many do so well in large planted exhibits. I was given some latitude, and happily established colonies of “Halloween Crabs” (please see photo), “Soap Box Crabs”, various members of the family Potomonidae and Land Hermit Crabs throughout the reptile house. We even kept the massive Coconut Crab for a (too brief!) period. But the time and money needed to study them properly never materialized, and I still wonder at the identity of some that passed my way. So I was quite happy to see that interest which germinated in the pet trade has resulted in an important discovery.

 

The New Species

According to a recent article in the journal Raffles Bulletin of Zoology (V. 63:3-13; 1/2015) two previously undescribed species have been found among pet trade animals commonly sold as Vampire Crabs. They were collected on Java, and have been named Geosesarma hagen and G. dennerle. Individuals vary in coloration, but in general they are bright orange and deep purple with cream blotches, respectively. Others I’ve kept, which exhibited similar lifestyles, sported shocking yellow eyes, brilliant red claws, and jet black carapace borders.

 

Christmas Island Red Crab

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by russavia

Land Crab Diversity

As crab enthusiasts know, Indonesia’s many islands, as well as others in the Indian and South Pacific Oceans, support a fantastic array of terrestrial (and marine) crabs. From the unbelievably-large Coconut Crab to the spectacular migrations of Christmas Island’s Red Crabs (please see photos), the region’s crab diversity is unmatched anywhere on earth. Some small islands support a dozen or more species, which seem to fill niches taken elsewhere by reptiles, amphibians and small mammals (or monkeys, perhaps, in the Coconut Crab’s case!).

 

As seems to be true for the newly-described Vampire Crabs, many have long been isolated from relatives, so new species almost certainly remain to be found.

 

Vampire Crab Terrariums

Vampire Crabs and their relatives do best in moist, well-planted terrariums that allow climbing and burrowing opportunities. Live carpet moss and leaf litter over a topsoil/coconut husk substrate suits them well. Philodendron, Chinese Evergreen, Pothos, Cast Iron Plants and other sturdy species will add immensely to their quality of life and your enjoyment of them. Although only a mere 0.8-1.3 inches in length, these active little fellows will do best if given plenty of room.

 

Type terrariun

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Jitka Erbenov

Although said to be nocturnal in the wild, most that I’ve kept were eager to forage by day once they settled in, especially if ample cover was provided. A temperature gradient of 75-85 F, and an ambient humidity level of 70% or higher should be established. Terrarium heat pads attached to the tank’s sides and red light bulbs will assist you in heating and observing your pets after dark.

 

Diet

Most terrestrial crabs feed opportunistically on almost any organic material that comes along. However, Vampire Crabs seem more inclined to seek and chase down live prey than do many others – so much so, in fact, that they remind me of that most voracious of inshore predators, the Blue Claw Crab!

 

t204362As we do not know their exact nutritional requirements, I provide a highly-varied diet for all terrestrial crabs. Vampires will readily accept Zoo Med Hermit Crab Food and many other diets formulated for terrestrial hermit crabs, freeze dried shrimp, frozen and flake foods marketed for tropical fishes, moist algae tablets and turtle chow, small live and dead crickets, black worms and other invertebrates, and some fruits and vegetables. Calcium blocks will be used by some species, and powdered calcium should be mixed into their food as well.

 

I especially like to offer fresh leaf litter and grass clippings – all land crabs, including the popular Terrestrial Hermit Crabs, will eagerly pick through this material for small invertebrates, plant shoots, moss, lichen, decaying leaves and other tidbits that likely provide important nutrients.

A shallow bowl of de-chlorinated water should always be available for soaking and breeding purposes (please see below).

 

Some keepers report that Vampire Crabs are less inclined than others to hunt down and consume their molting tank mates (they are defenseless until the new exoskeleton hardens). I, however, have no faith in crab “sociability”, and so advise you to include deep substrate and many hiding places…along with lots of food!

 

Breeding

Unlike Coconut, Hermit and Fiddler Crabs, all of which require marine water for soaking and as a breeding site, Vampire Crabs have cut all ties with the ocean. Females carry their 20-50+ eggs about until they hatch or are ready to hatch, whereupon they are deposited in shallow pools of fresh water.

 

Crab enthusiasts will be especially happy to learn that Vampires have thoughtfully done away with the planktonic larvae that have long prevented us from breeding others in captivity. Instead, tiny, fully formed crabs (crablets?) emerge from the eggs. They are said to chase down fruit flies and springtails in adult fashion; related species under my care have accepted other typical crab foods as well.

 

 

Further Reading

Coconut Crab and Land hermit Crab Care

The Best Substrate fir Terrestrial Hermit Crabs

 

The Two Toed Amphiuma: a Giant Salamander that Bites Like a Watersnake!

Toe Toed Amphiuma

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Brian Gratwicke

Although salamanders are not defenseless, herp enthusiasts tend not to give their jaws the respect we accord snakes and other reptiles. Until, that is, they tangle with an angry Two Toed Amphiuma (Amphiuma means)! At a record length of 45.6 inches, this third longest of the world’s salamanders is a major predator in the waters it inhabits, and able to bite viciously in self-defense. It is also one of the most interesting and hardy amphibians one can keep, with several longevities approaching 30 years recorded. In fact, I chose one from among literally thousands of available animals to pose with for my staff photo at the Bronx Zoo (displayed to visitors as they enter the reptile house)…and it drew as much or more attention as the more typical large constrictors and young crocs!

 

I have a deep interest in salamanders, and am especially drawn to large, aquatic species (I hope to write about my visit to Japan to see the Japanese Giant Salamander and to N. California to see Pacific Giants soon). Amphiumas are so unique and yet given so little attention that I became carried away writing about their natural history. So as not to burden my readers with an overly-long article, I’ll cover their captive care in the near future.

 

Description

Greater Siren

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Mokele

At a record length of 45.6 inches, this largest of the 3 Amphiuma species is also the world’s third longest salamander, exceeded in length only by the Chinese and Japanese Giant Salamanders, (Andrias spp.) Another aquatic native of the USA, the Greater Siren (Siren laticauda), may reach 38 inches in length, but is slimmer in build and has external gills (please see photo).

 

The body is stout but elongated and eel-like, with 4 tiny, essentially useless limbs and a laterally compressed tail. The eyes are small, lidless and covered with skin. There is an external gill slit but adults breathe via the lungs and skin. The color is uniform gray to dark brown, with occasional albinos having been found.

 

The first Amphiuma I encountered in a pet store was being sold as a “Congo Eel”. This name is rarely used today, but I have a photo of an Amphiuma labelled as such at the Bronx Zoo’s reptile house on opening day, over 100 years ago.

 

Range

The Two Toed Amphiuma is found in the Southeastern United States, along the coastal plain from eastern Virginia through the southern tip of Florida (it is absent from the Keys) and west to southeastern Louisiana.

 

Three Toed Amphiuma

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by opencage

There are 2 other species in the genus. The 12-inch-long One Toed Amphiuma (A. pholeter) is restricted to the northwestern Florida Panhandle and adjacent southeastern Alabama. The Three-toed Amphiuma (A. triadactylum, please see photo), to 42 inches long, ranges from western Alabama to eastern Texas and north to Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee and southwestern Kentucky.

 

In the northeastern portion of its range, where the Two-toed Amphiuma shares its habitat with the Three-toed Amphiuma, the 2 species occasionally interbreed.

 

Habitat

Amphiumas favor shallow, heavily-vegetated, slow-moving or stagnant water bodies such as bayous, swamps, flooded meadows, drainage ditches, canals, and ponds. They are often associated with acidic waters. Although entirely aquatic, Amphiumas sometimes travel overland on wet nights. They are mainly nocturnal, and shelter by day in self-dug burrows, crayfish and muskrat tunnels, and beneath aquatic vegetation.

 

Typical habitat

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Keith Yahl

All three Amphiuma species can aestivate by burrowing into the mud when their aquatic habitats dry out. Two-toed Amphiumas have survived for 1 year in such a state, and anecdotal evidence indicates that they may be capable of lasting for 2 or more years without food or water. They hibernate during winter in the northern portions of their ranges.

 

Reproduction

Fertilization is internal. Gravid females construct nests by evacuating depressions below logs and other cover or within muskrat burrows. The nests may be in very shallow water or on moist land – in some cases as much as 20 feet from the water’s edge. The female coils about the eggs during the 4-5 month incubation period, protecting them from predators and desiccation. It is not known if incubating females leave the eggs to feed.

 

The 30-200 eggs, which are attached to each other in string-like fashion, are deposited in June/July in the northern part of the range and in Jan. /Feb. in the south. Inundation with water may trigger hatching.

 

The larvae average 2 inches in length upon hatching and have external gills. The gills are quickly resorbed, often within 2 weeks. The larvae apparently survive on their yolk during this period. Sexual maturity is reached in 3-4 years.

 

Diet and Predators

Two-toed Amphiumas consume nearly any smaller animal that can be overcome, including frogs, tadpoles, salamanders, small snakes and turtles, fish, insects, snails, crayfish and carrion. They hunt largely by smell, and appear to have chemo-receptive glands along the body – a food item touched by any portion of the body is instantly seized.

 

Mud Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by John Sullivan

The Mud Snake (Farancia obscura; please see photo), and the Rainbow Snake (F. erythrogramma), appear to prey largely upon Amphiumas. They are also hunted by herons, alligators, large turtles and otters. Amphiumas have found their way into human diets, long ago among people indigenous to the American Southeast and, it is reported, more recently as well.

 

Further Reading

Keeping the Greater Siren

Salamander Conservation Efforts

 

Do Newts and Salamanders Make Good Pets? Five Points to Consider

Crested Newt

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Rainer Theuer.

Despite my very wide interests (my career with animals has, quite literally, spanned ants to elephants!), I’ve always been partial to newts and salamanders. I focused on them from my earliest days working for the Bronx Zoo, and had the good fortune to author two books on their care and breeding. As pets and zoo specimens, they range from nearly impossible to keep to being among the longest lived of all captive herps (to age 50+, for the Fire and Japanese Giant Salamanders). The following points, drawn from a lifetime of working with these wonderful creatures in zoos, the field, and at home, are useful to consider before embarking on your amphibian-keeping venture.

 

Note: The terms “newt” and “salamander” do not always correspond with taxonomic relationships. All newts may be correctly called “salamanders”, but generally we consider newts to be those species that spend most of their time in water and salamanders to be more terrestrial. However, the term “salamander” is also used for many completely aquatic animals, such as the mudpuppy and hellbender…so call them what you wish!

 

As the care of different species varies greatly, please post below if you have specific questions, or would like a link to an article on a certain species.

 

Marbled Salamander

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Spacewater7

Newts and Salamanders are “Hands-Off” Pets

Fire Salamanders, Tiger Salamanders, Ribbed Newts and some others are often responsive to their owners, and will readily feed from the hand. However, they should be picked-up only when necessary, and then with wet hands. All amphibians have extremely delicate skin, and even microscopic tears will allow harmful bacteria to enter and cause havoc.

 

Also, all produce toxic secretions designed to repel predators. The toxins of several North American salamanders have caused temporary blindness when rubbed into handlers’ eyes, and the ingestion of California Newts (apparently some sort of college ritual) has resulted in fatalities. Severe irritations are to be expected if these toxins find their way onto broken skin or mucus membranes. Obviously, this is a special consideration for those with young children at home.

 

Well-cared-for newts and salamanders will reward you by exhibiting fascinating behaviors…but not if you disturb them with unnecessary handling!

 

Eastern Newt

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Brian Gratwicke

Clean Terrariums and Excellent Water Quality are Essential

Newts and salamanders absorb water through the skin, and along with that water comes any associated pollutants. The most common of these is ammonia, which is excreted with the waste products. Most newts and salamanders are as or even more sensitive to water quality than are tropical fishes, since they absorb water over a greater surface area.

 

Ammonia test kits, partial water changes and strong filtration are critical to success in keeping amphibians. Substrate needs the same attention as does water, as terrestrial species can be poisoned by ammonia-soaked moss or soil.

 

Newts and Salamanders Need a Varied Diet

No species will thrive long-term on a diet comprised solely of crickets. Earthworms can be used as a dietary staple for most newts and salamanders; it would be wise to locate a source and perhaps set up a colony before purchasing your pet (please see the article linked below). I’ve done well by relying upon wild-caught invertebrates during the warmer months. Moths, beetles, tree crickets, harvestmen, “smooth” caterpillars and a variety of others are accepted – usually far more enthusiastically than are crickets! Please see these articles for tips on collecting insects.

 

Useful invertebrates that you can buy include roaches, butterworms, calciworms, silkworms, and sow bugs.

 

t246151Newts are simpler to feed than are terrestrial species, as nearly all (i.e. Red-Spotted, Crested, Paddle-tailed, Ribbed) will accept Zoo Med Aquatic Newt Food and Reptomin. These foods can anchor the diet, with live blackworms (sold in many pet stores as tropical fish food), guppies, chopped earthworms and small crickets being offered on occasion.

 

Spotted Salamanders, Red Efts and other terrestrial species will accept live food only.

 

Many Newts and Salamanders are Heat Sensitive

Average household temperatures are too warm for the vast majority of newts and salamanders. Even those native to seasonally hot regions, such as the Spotted and Marbled Salamanders of the American Southeast or North Africa’s Fire Salamanders, live in cool micro-habitats (often below-ground). Sustained temperatures above 75 F (and, for many, above 70 F) weaken the immune system and increase susceptibility to bacterial and fungal skin infections. A cool basement is the ideal location for most species.

 

If you must keep your pets in a warm room, several of the more tolerant newts should be considered. Please post below for further information.

 

Northern Slimey Salamander

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Patrick Coin

The “It Doesn’t Do Anything” Factor

Ideally, the new amphibian owner will be interested in her or his pet for its own sake. But most of us also wish to see how it lives, what it does, and so on. Many amphibians are about as active as the infamous “pet rock”…and are nocturnal to boot!

 

If you favor an active pet, consider a diurnal newt that forages for rather than ambushes its food, and keep it in a large, naturalistic aquarium. Six Fire-Bellied Newts in a well-planted 20 gallon tank will provide you with infinitely more to observe than will an equal number of Marbled Salamanders housed in a terrarium of the same size.

 

Some nocturnal species may adjust to daytime schedules once they settle into their new homes. Tiger and Fire Salamanders are especially accommodating in this regard. Red night-viewing bulbs will greatly increase your ability to observe Slimy Salamanders and other strictly nocturnal species.

 

 

 

Further Reading

Earthworm Care and Breeding

Newt Care

Fire Salamander Care

Western Hognose Snake: Care, Color Morphs and Natural History

North America’s Hognose Snakes are well-known for their impressive defensive displays. I’ve found the Eastern Hognose in its natural habitat and have bred it for a release program during my tenure at the Bronx Zoo. But as this snake limits its diet to toads, it is rarely seen in zoos or private collections. The Western Hognose Snake (Heterodon nasicus), on the other hand, has gained a following among snake-keepers that is usually reserved for rat snakes, boas, and pythons. It seems to be the most popular of the “non-typical” snakes kept, at least here in the USA. Reasons for this abound, including a “viper-like” appearance, dramatic defensive display, calm demeanor, non-demanding diet, and willingness to reproduce. Selective breeders have been thrilled with this species as well – as evidenced by the astonishing 52 “designer color morphs” that have been produced!

 

Weastern Hognose snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Dawson

I’ve also had the good fortune to work with the very impressive Madagascan Giant Hognose Snake (Leioheterodon madagascariensis); please see the article linked below for further information.

 

Classification

Two snakes formerly considered to be subspecies of the Western Hognose Snake have now been described as full species – the Dusky Hognose (H. gloydi) and the Mexican Hognose (H. kennerlyi). Also included in the genus are the Eastern Hognose Snake and the Southern Hognose (H. platyrhinos, and H. simus, see photos).

 

Description

The Western Hognose Snake is heavily-built, yellowish-tan, gray, or dark brown in color, and marked with black blotches. Upturned rostral scales on the snout assist it in burrowing and unearthing prey. Adults average 2 feet in length, but appear larger due to the thickness of their bodies; the published record size is 35 ¼ inches.

 

I was surprised to find that the number of color morphs available now rivals those established for those two pet trade heavyweights, the Ball Python and Corn Snake. At least 52 color and pattern variations, with fanciful names such as Albino Super Anaconda, Coral, and Pistachio, are now being offered. You can see photos of many at the site linked below.

 

Type habitat

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Dustin M. Ramsey.

Range and Habitat

The Western Hognose Snake’s range extends from southeastern Alberta to northwestern Manitoba, Canada, and south to southeastern Arizona, Texas and northern Mexico; isolated populations may be found in Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois and Missouri.

 

Largely terrestrial and often sheltering below ground, the Western Hognose favors open habitats such as sandy or sand/gravel prairies, thorn scrub, and lightly wooded grasslands, and has been found to elevations of 8,000 feet above sea level.

 

Temperament in Captivity

Western Hognose Snakes are rear-fanged, and produce mild venom that is used to overcome their prey. They are not considered to be dangerous to people, but the consequences of allergic reactions or of a bite to a child, senior citizen or immune-compromised individual should be considered. Consult your doctor before acquiring any rear-fanged snake.

 

Puff Adder

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Johannes van Rooyen

When cornered, the Western Hognose Snake flattens the body and hisses loudly, after which it strikes, usually with a closed mouth. When pressed further, it may roll over and feign death. Captives soon give up this charade, which in any case is rarely as dramatic as that put on the Eastern Hognose.

 

Many people see a close resemblance between this snake and the several rattlesnake species that share its range. As you can see from the photo, a similar appearance and display is seen in other Viperids as well, such as Africa’s Puff Adder.

 

The Terrarium

Youngsters may be accommodated in 10 gallon aquariums. Average-sized adults can be kept in a 20 gallon long-style aquarium, with a 30 gallon being preferable for extra-large individuals or pairs. The tank’s screen lid must be secured by cage clips, as they are very powerful, even by snake standards.

 

Natural burrowers, Western Hognose Snakes are most comfortable below-ground. A deep layer of cypress mulch or aspen is preferable to newspapers as a substrate. I’ve kept Eastern Hognose Snakes on a sand/gravel mix, but the possibility of impactions has been raised by some keepers; please post below for further information.

 

Native to arid environments, Western Hognose Snakes do not fare well in damp enclosures.

 

Eastern Hognose Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Bladerunner8u

Heat and Light

Western Hognose Snakes do well at a temperature gradient of 75-82 F. An incandescent bulb or sub-tank heat pad should be used to create a basking spot of 90 F.

 

A ceramic heater, heat pad, or red/black reptile night bulb can be employed to provide heat after dark.

 

Diet

Not nearly as picky as its east coast cousin, the Western Hognose takes toads, lizards, other snakes, rodents and the eggs of turtles, lizards, and birds with equal gusto.; locusts and other large invertebrates have also been reported as food items.  I recall one study in which this species was identified as the major nest predator of an endangered turtle (the details escape me right now).

 

Captive adults readily accept mice, but hatchlings prefer lizard or toad-scented pink mice at first (some keepers report that water from canned tuna also works well). In time, they can be weaned onto unscented mice.

 

Breeding

In their natural habitat, Western Hognose Snakes breed from March-May, and females deposit 4-25 eggs approximately 3 months later. The 6-7.5 inch long youngsters hatch in 7-9 weeks, and are sexually mature at 2-3 years of age. The published longevity for this species is just short of 20 years.

 

Pets are not so closely tied to the seasons as are wild individuals. Please post below for detailed information on captive breeding.

 

 Further Reading

Madagascar Giant Hognose Snake Care

Western Hognose Color Morphs

The USA’s Only Native Rear-Fanged Vine Snake: Care and Natural History

Mexican Vine Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by berichard

Although I’ve cared for Latin American and Asian vine snakes in zoos, and have searched their natural habitats, I had somehow missed the fact that one occurs in my own country, the USA. In extreme south-central Arizona may be found a “tropical-looking” snake seems somewhat out-of-place (to me, at least!) – the Mexican or Brown Vine Snake (Oxybelis aeneus). Being rear-fanged, high strung and quite demanding as to its diet, the Mexican Vine Snake is not recommended for other than well-experienced keepers. However, in both behavior and appearance it is most fascinating, and well-worth more interest and study.

 

 

Range and Habitat

Habitat type

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Sergio Sertão

 As mentioned, the Mexican Vine Snake is unique among similar species in that its range extends into the USA…but just barely. The US population is limited to the Atascosa, Patagonia and Pajarito Mountains in the south-central tip of Arizona. The remainder of its range is huge, extending from Mexico to Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia, and including the islands of Margarita, Trinidad and Tobago.

The Mexican Vine Snake inhabits relatively arid environments, including dry forest edges, overgrown thickets, wooded grasslands, brushy hillsides and densely-vegetated canyons. In common with the other 3 species in the genus, it is entirely arboreal.

Size and Coloration

Mexican Vine Snakes are very thin and “vine-like” in profile (no surprises there!). Although somberly-colored, their various shades of gray, silver and copper blend together in an attractive manner. A dark line extends from the snout through the eye and down the neck. The chin and area below the eyes are usually bright yellow in color. Typical adults measure 4 1/2 – 5 feet in length.

The Mexican Vine Snake is a rear-fanged species that uses venom to kill its prey (please see below).

Green Vine Snake, Oxybelisfulgidus

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Dimitri Eggenberger.

Also included in the genus Oxybelis are three other Latin American species, the Green Vine Snake (please see photo), Cope’s Vine Snake, and Roatan Vine Snake.

The Terrarium

Mexican Vine Snakes are best housed in large, vertically-oriented terrariums or custom-built cages. Zoo Med’s Repti-Breeze cage would be a good choice for a moderately-sized individual, but a large adult would require more room.

Climbing space is essential. The enclosure should be provided with numerous branches and tangles of real or artificial vines. Ideally, their living quarters should also be stocked with live plants, which will provide a sense of security and hiding spots. Hanging potted pothos has worked well for me. Most individuals prefer sheltering among plants and vines to hollow cork bark or other arboreal caves. If live plants are not used, hanging artificial plants and dry Spanish moss may be substituted. Mexican Vine Snakes will not thrive in small enclosures, or if denied above-ground cover.

t255908Like many arboreal snakes, Mexican Vine Snakes will drink water sprayed onto the body; some will also accept water from a bowl. As they do not take well to disturbances, cypress mulch or similar materials that allow for spot-cleaning are preferable to newspapers as a substrate. The cage should be located in a quiet area of the home. An ambient temperature range of 75- 80 F is ideal, with a basking site set at 88 F.

Some keepers believe that low levels of UVB light and UVA exposure are beneficial to this and related species.

Asian Green Vine Snake consuming frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by L. Shyamal

Diet

The natural diet is comprised of lizards, treefrogs and small birds; small arboreal rodents and insects may also be taken, but detailed field studies are lacking. Brown Anoles, Mediterranean Geckos and several other small lizards that have been introduced to Florida are the most reliably-available captive foods (in my experience, anoles were favored over others). Chicks and pink or fuzzy mice are taken by some individuals. The use of large food items has been linked to intestinal blockages, and I’m not certain that a rodent-only diet would be ideal long-term.

Youngsters feed primarily upon frogs and lizards, and usually refuse all else. Scenting a pink mouse leg with a frog or anole may induce feeding.

Care Notes

Waste must be removed in a manner that does not disturb the snake or expose one to a bite. The cage should be misted lightly each day, but dry conditions should prevail. As individuals offered for sale will likely be wild-caught, a veterinary exam is recommended for all new additions to your collection.

Breeding

Captive breeding has rarely been accomplished, and is not well-documented in the literature. Research into this area by private keepers would be most valuable to this snake and its relatives. Field observations indicate that 4-8 eggs are typically produced.

Green Vine Snake Threat Display

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Jayendra Chiplunkar

Temperament

Mexican Vine Snakes are notoriously high-strung, and should be viewed as creatures to observe rather than handle. When approached, they open the mouth to expose its black interior and strike repeatedly (please see photo of Asian Green Vine Snake threat display).

Although the venom produced is not considered dangerous to people, the possibility of an allergic reaction, and the consequences of a bite to a child, elderly person, or immune-compromised individual, must be considered. Your doctor should be consulted before a rear-fanged snake of any species is acquired.

Blunt Headed Treesnake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Geoff Gallice

Other Vine Snakes

Asian snakes of the genus Ahaetulla also go by the common name of “vine snake”. Although they closely resemble the New World species in form and habits, they do not appear to be closely related. Several are available in the trade from time to time. I’ve kept the strikingly-beautiful Green or Long-Nose Asian Vine Snake (Ahaetulla nasuta; please see photos) at the Bronx Zoo – the experience was well-worth the time and energy invested in its care! Please post below for further information.

The Cloudy Snail-Eating Snake, Blunt-Headed Treesnake (please see photo) and 1-2 others of the genus Imantodes sometimes appear in the pet trade under various “vine snake” names as well.

 

Further Reading

Rough and Smooth Green Snake Care

Keeping Snakes in Planted Terrariums

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