Chameleons as Pets: Breeding Senegal Chameleons

Flap necked Chameleon

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Lix

Female Senegal Chameleons (Chamaeleo senegalensis) often surprise their owners with eggs…indeed, they are among the most prolific of all lizards. Yet successful captive breeding presents us with many difficulties, and losses of both eggs and gravid (egg-bearing) females are all-too-common. This is a shame, because with proper care these fascinating creatures can provide one with a valuable introduction to chameleon care and breeding. Today we’ll examine the reasons behind most breeding failures, and look at some useful changes we can make to improve this sad situation.   Note:  Photo above is of a Flap-Necked Chameleon, formerly considered to be a subspecies of the Senegal.  Please click here for a photo of a Senegal Chameleon.

Tough Lizards that Burn Out Quickly

Senegal Chameleons live fast and die young, with 2-5 years being the average lifespan even for those receiving excellent care. Like most creatures with this lifestyle, they mature quickly and reproduce often. Female Senegal Chameleons can breed at the tender age of 6 months, and even with a less-than-ideal diet can produce 2-3 clutches of 15-75 eggs each year.   Senegals are also quite durable – in the short term – and often feed well and develop eggs even when stressed by collection from the wild and substandard care. This leads to a false sense of security among novice owners, and, in time to frustration, as the new lizard feeds, develops eggs, then then dies along with her clutch.

The Problem

The root of many breeding failures lies in the fact that Senegal Chameleon collection is simpler and cheaper than captive reproduction. Because they breed so prolifically, wild-caught females are usually carrying eggs in some stage of development. Collection and shipment is hard on chameleons, which by nature are stress-prone, and all the more so where gravid females are concerned.   In addition, misconceptions as to their care abound. Many keepers fail to appreciate just how much living space and privacy these (and all) chameleons need, and the necessity of providing a proper nest site. While most understand the need for calcium supplementation and UVB exposure, captive diets still typically lack appropriate variety, and the importance of an adequate water supply is often over-looked.

Katydid (favorite chameleon food)

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Vishalsh521

Studies have shown that Senegal Chameleons choose prey in accordance with their nutritional needs, and that other species regulate basking time (under UVB) in tune with their circulating Vitamin D level. This is important research that bears directly on our ability to keep and breed this fascinating lizard…please see the articles linked below, and post any related questions you may have.

Introducing Potential Mates

Although female Senegal Chameleons can reproduce at 6 months of age, pets should be at least 1 year old before being introduced to a male. At younger ages, they are still adding bone mass, which requires ample calcium intake. Egg production presents an additional calcium drain, increasing the likelihood of metabolic bone disease.   Female Senegal Chameleons are generally as territorial as are males, and will attack a potential mate if they are not ready to breed. Always introduce a male by placing his cage near that of the female, and drape a semi-transparent cloth between the cages as an extra stress-inhibitor. Females in good health will show their intentions right away – threatening the male if not receptive but refraining from attack mode if willing to breed. Receptive females will also exhibit color changes and an enlarged or bulging cloaca.   If your female is not ready, relocate the male’s cage to another room and try at a later date. Captive conditions change the normal ebb and flow of reptile hormones, so it’s best to try at various times during the year.

Mating and the Gestation Period

If the female appears ready to mate, allow the male to move into her cage on his own, as handling may stress the animals and forestall breeding. Copulation can last for 1-2 hours, during which time both will likely show some color changes. Remove the male as soon as they have copulated, as the female will likely attack him shortly thereafter.   Female Senegal Chameleons typically lay eggs within 70-90 days after mating. However, much longer and shorter gestation periods have been reported. The confusion may arise from the fact that captive diets, light cycles and such can affect the time it takes for the eggs to mature. Bear in mind also that a single mating can result in numerous fertile clutches, and that unmated females frequently lay (infertile) eggs. To be safe, always have a suitable nesting site available to all females (please see below).   t4291

Common Concerns: Low Calcium and Dehydration

Gravid females have extremely high calcium requirements. A calcium-poor diet will cause metabolic bone disease, a condition wherein calcium is leached from the bones and replaced with fibrous tissue. Calcium also assists in producing the strong muscle contractions needed to expel eggs from the body. Calcium deficient females will retain their eggs (a condition known as dystocia) and will eventually expire from infections (egg peritonitis) or related problems. I favor ZooMed calcium supplements, and always nutrient load feeder insects unless they are wild-caught; please see the article linked below for more on calcium supplementation and diet.   Females fed a high calcium diet may nevertheless retain eggs if they are dehydrated. Senegal Chameleons rarely drink from water bowls, and the water volume they take in when the terrarium is sprayed is often insufficient. Water dripped from a punctured contained set atop the terrarium is more likely to meet their needs. You’ll need to place a container below the drip cup in order to catch excess water. A reptile humidifier will also assist in keeping your chameleon properly hydrated.

The Nest Site

As mentioned, female Senegal Chameleons should always have access to a nesting site. Most will not release their eggs unless provided a suitable place in which to dig a nest chamber. A plastic bin or storage container measuring 18” x 18’ x 18” works well. Some individuals will use smaller containers, but a depth of at least 12” is essential.   The nest box should be filled with a mix of sand and top soil or coconut husk. The substrate should be kept slightly moist…just enough so that it clumps a bit when squeezed. If too dry, the female’s egg tunnel will collapse as it is being dug, and she will abandon the site. The terrarium walls near the site should be covered with cloth or a similar material, and the cage itself should be located in an undisturbed part of the house. The terrarium’s regular basking bulb, or an additional one, should be used to warm the nesting area.   t248523

Incubating the Eggs

Senegal Chameleon eggs have been successfully incubated at temperatures ranging from 72 to 80 F. At 77 F, they typically hatch in 6 months. A high-quality reptile egg incubator is the surest means of assuring a successful hatch.   The eggs can be set-up in vermiculite at a water-substrate ratio of 1:1 by weight. Even for mathematically-impaired individuals such as I, this is easy to accomplish – please see this article for a simple explanation.

Termite (food for baby chameleons)

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Esculapio

Baby Chameleons!

Newly-hatched chameleons present a unique set of challenges, especially when it comes to providing a healthful, varied diet. Please see this article on feeding tiny reptiles and amphibians, and those linked below, for more info.

 

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo. Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.   Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.  

Further Reading

Senegal Chameleons: Common Health Problems  Senegal Chameleon Diet Study  The Best Foods for Chameleons The Best Reptile Egg Incubator

Pet Frogs and Toads: Five Points to Consider Before Buying

Budgett's Frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Rosarinagazo

We amphibian enthusiasts are a lucky bunch. The world is populated by 6,389 frog and toad species, and new ones are discovered regularly. Among them we find frogs that have sheathed claws, lack lungs and defend their young from lions, along with toads that breed in salt marshes and bear live young. Some tadpoles feed upon their fathers’ skins, while others munch bark from tree branches…and that’s the mere tip of the iceberg! Frogs may be hardy survivors that can reach age 20, 30 or even 50, or be nearly impossible to keep alive in captivity. The following points, drawn from a lifetime of working with frogs and toads in the Bronx Zoo and at home, are useful to consider before embarking on your amphibian-keeping venture.

 

Note: The terms “frog” and “toad” do not always correspond with taxonomic relationships. All toads may be correctly called “frogs”. I’ll use “frogs” when referring to both.

 

Pine Barren's Treefrog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Lonerockalex

Please post below if you have specific questions, or would like a link to an article on a certain species.

 

Pet Frogs are “Hands-Off”

Cane Toads, White’s Treefrogs and many others are often very responsive to their owners, and will readily feed from the hand (or, for the “tooth” bearing African Bullfrog and Horned Frogs, from tongs!). However, they should be picked-up only when necessary, and then with wet hands. All amphibians have extremely delicate skin, and even microscopic tears will allow harmful bacteria to enter and cause havoc. Also, the skin’s mucus covering, which has anti-microbial properties, is easily removed even during gentle handling.

 

Well-cared-for frogs will reward you by exhibiting fascinating behaviors…but not if you disturb or injure them with unnecessary handling!

 

Blue Poison Frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Wildfeuer,

Frogs Need Clean Terrariums and Excellent Water Quality

An African Bullfrog can eat baby cobras, survive 9 months without food and live for over 50 years. Yet 2-3 days of soaking in a fouled water bowl can end its live.

 

Frogs absorb water through the skin, and along with that water comes any associated pollutants. The most common of these is ammonia, which is excreted with the waste products. Most frogs are as or even more delicate than tropical fishes, since they absorb water over a greater surface area; ammonia test kits, partial water changes and strong filtration are critical to success in keeping them. Substrate needs the same attention as does water, since Horned Frogs and other land-dwellers can be poisoned by ammonia-soaked moss or soil.

 

Snowy tree cricket

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by PaulT

Frogs Need a Highly-Varied Diet

No frog will thrive long-term on a diet comprised solely of crickets and mealworms, even if these foods are powdered with supplements. I’ve done well by relying heavily upon wild-caught invertebrates during the warmer months.  Moths, beetles, grasshoppers, tree crickets, harvestmen, earwigs, “smooth” caterpillars and a variety of others are accepted – usually far more enthusiastically than are crickets!. Please see these articles for tips on collecting insects.

 

Useful invertebrates that you can buy include earthworms, roaches, butterworms, calciworms, silkworms, hornworms and sow bugs.  Feeders should be provided a healthful diet before use.  Canned grasshoppers, snails, and silkworms may be offered via feeding tongs. Please see the article linked below for further information on dietary variety.

 

Frogs are Easily Stressed…but it’s Hard to Tell

Stress is one of the most important and misunderstood concepts in herp husbandry. While some frogs will leap away when threatened, many instinctively freeze. Inexperienced owners often misinterpret the lack of vigorous protest as an “acceptance” of handling. However, be assured that your pet’s stress hormones are surging, and that this will have a deleterious effect on its immune system.

 

Being relatively inactive, many frogs may seem blissfully unaware of terrarium size, or of what is going on outside their enclosures. However, most are quite alert, and miss nothing. It may be difficult for us to detect a problem merely by observing our pets’ behaviors.

 

Certain species, such as White’s Treefrogs, American or Southern Toads, and African Clawed Frogs, are better-suited to busy households than are most.

 

Indian Bullfrog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Amada44

The “It Doesn’t Do Anything” Factor

Ideally, the new frog owner will be interested in her or his pet for its own sake. But most of us also wish to see how it lives, what it does, and so on. Many frogs are about as active as the infamous “pet rock”…and are nocturnal to boot!

 

If you favor an active pet, consider a small diurnal species that forages for rather than ambushes its food, and keep it in a large, naturalistic terrarium. Five Blue Dart Poison Frogs (active hunters) in a well-planted 30 gallon tank will provide you with infinitely more to observe than will an Argentine Horned Frog (ambush predator) kept in the same-sized enclosure. African Clawed and Dwarf African Clawed Frogs also tend to be quite active, especially if housed in planted aquariums and not over-fed. Allowing sow bugs, springtails and other food species to become established in the terrarium will encourage activity.

 

Some species that tend to be active at night may adjust to daytime schedules once they settle into to their new homes. American Toads and their relatives are especially accommodating in this regards. Others, such as Green and Gold Bell Frogs, American Bullfrogs and Leopard Frogs, are ready and willing to feed round-the-clock. Red night-viewing bulbs will greatly increase your ability to observe Red-Eyed Treefrogs, Spadefoot Toads and other strictly nocturnal species.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

 

Nutritious Diets for Frogs and Toads

Toad Care: Common and Unusual Species

 

 

Savu Python Care: Keeping One of the World’s Smallest Pythons

Savu Python

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by TomVickers

Pythons are highly valued by snake enthusiasts, but most become too large for the average household, and cannot be safely handled by young or inexperienced keepers. But in the early 1990’s a “big python in a small package” appeared in the pet trade, and its popularity has since soared. Averaging only 3 ½ to 4 ½ feet in length, the Save or White-Eyed Python (Liasis savuensis) is beautifully iridescent and calm in demeanor. And, with a natural range that spans a mere 60 square miles, this interesting snake is also important from a conservation perspective.

 

Classification

The Savu Python was first described in 1956, at which time it was classified as a one of three subspecies of the Macklot’s Python. Today, there is disagreement as to its species status, and many herpetologists continue to list it as Liasis mackloti savuensis.

 

Savu Python Description

The Savu Python’s outstanding features include brilliant iridescence and its noticeably-white eyes. Hatchlings are reddish-brown to rich orange in color. They undergo a radical color change with maturity, by which time most are dark brown and bear rusty-orange spots on the belly and sides. Some adults, however, are nearly black in coloration, while the scales of others retain an orange tinge.  Few adults exceed 5 feet in length, with most topping out at 3.5 – 4.5 feet; only 3-4 of the world’s 40 python species are as small.

 

Range and Habitat

The Savu Python is found only on the 10 mile x 6 mile Indonesian island of Sawu (also known as Savu), off Australia’s northwestern coast. It has the smallest natural range of any python.

 

Liasis mackloti savuensis

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by TimVickers

Although this snake’s natural history has not been well-studied, reports indicate that it is a habitat generalist. Savu Pythons have been found in wooded grasslands, palm thickets, thorn scrub, and along the ocean shore.

 

The Terrarium

Hatchlings may be started-off in 10 gallon aquariums. Adults can be accommodated in a 30-55 gallon aquarium. Screen tops must be secured with clips and a hide box should always be available.

 

Substrate

Newspapers and washable terrarium liners may be used as a substrate. As some keepers have reported that Savu Pythons seem prone to mouth irritations and infections, those kept on cypress chips http://bitly.com/Plr8BA or similar substrates are best moved to bare-bottomed enclosures at feeding time.

 

Light

Pythons do not require UVB light, but may benefit from the provision of a UVA bulb.

 

Heat

The ambient temperature should range from 75-84 F. Incandescent bulbs can be used to create a basking site of 90 F. Ceramic heaters or red/black reptile “night bulbs” may be employed to provide heat after dark. If needed, under-tank heaters http://bitly.com/SRpr5g can be used to further warm the basking surface.

 

Provide your snake with the largest home possible, so that a thermal gradient (areas of different temperatures) can be established. Thermal gradients, critical to good health, allow reptiles to regulate their body temperature by moving between hot and cooler areas.

 

Feeding

Little is known about the diet of wild Savu Pythons, but they likely prey upon small mammals and, perhaps, ground-dwelling birds and lizards. Small food items, such as mice or rat pups, are preferable to large, even for adults. Except for females being readied for b breeding and growing youngsters, Savu Pythons are best fed every 14 days.

 

Water should always be available. Bowls should be filled to a point where they will not overflow when the snake curls up within.

 

Temperament

Savu Pythons are typically calm in disposition, and generally tolerate gentle handling. Like all snakes, however, care must be exercised when working around them.

 

Breeding

Breeding activity is stimulated by a 2-3 month period of reduced temperatures (72 F by night, 82-85 F by day) initiated in late autumn. Clutches generally contain 5-10 eggs, which may be incubated in moist vermiculite at 88-90 F for 55-65 days. Hatchlings average 11-14 inches in length.

 

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook. Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank Indiviglio.

 

Further Reading

 

Python Eats Crocodile: Giant Snake Meals

 

Green Tree Python Care and Natural History

My Frog’s Color is Fading! Diet Changes can Brighten Frog Colors

Congo Reed Frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Nhobgood

Frogs that are clad in yellow, orange, and red, such as Fire-Bellied Toads and Red-Eyed Treefrogs, often become somewhat dull in coloration after a time in captivity. I’ve noticed this in a variety of species under my care in zoos and at home, yet the phenomenon is rare in the wild or among animals kept outdoors under semi-natural conditions. Color loss can also indicate a health concern (please see below), but often the affected animals are robust and doing well. A photograph showing an astonishing difference in coloration between Red-Eyed Treefrogs maintained on 2 different diets recently caught my eye, and I thought it might be useful to summarize the related research here.

Acquiring Color: Why are Red Frogs Red?

Pigments known as carotenoids are responsible for most of the orange, red and yellow coloration exhibited by frogs. Color is important not just from an aesthetic point of view (or a monetary one, for those who breed “designer frogs”!) but may also affect breeding success and the ability to hide from or deter predators.

Fire bellied toad

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Pkuczynski

In addition to these roles, carotenoids also act as antioxidants and function in the immune and other systems. Carotenoids are manufactured by plants, bacteria and fungi; frogs and other vertebrates must obtain them from their diet.

Improving the Carotenoid Content of Feeder Insects

Researchers at the University of Manchester and the Chester Zoo investigated carotenoid levels in three species of crickets and three different cricket diets (Zooquaria, No. 5, p.6). One of those studied, the Domestic or House Cricket, Acheta domesticus, is used for pet food in the USA. The others – the Tropical House Cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, and the Mediterranean Field Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus – are more commonly seen in European and Asian collections.   A diet comprised of fruits and vegetables provided crickets with the highest carotenoid levels. A tropical fish food (flakes) diet resulted in intermediate carotenoid levels, and the lowest levels were seen in crickets feeding upon wheat germ and other grains.   Mediterranean Field Crickets achieved higher concentrations than did the other species, but none retained carotenoids for very long. Carotenoid levels plummeted within 48 hours, so gut-loaded crickets should be used within a day or so after consuming fruits, vegetables and other carotenoid rich foods; please see the article linked below for further information.

Painted Mantella

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Esculapio

Future Research

Although the study was spurred by an interest in the effect of carotenoids on the immune system, the coloration aspect is starting to attract attention (please see photos of red-eyed treefrogs here). Further study is needed, but it’s clear that adding fruits and vegetables to the diets we provide crickets, roaches and other feeders makes good sense. Bear in mind also that this study looked at one aspect of diet…fresh produce no doubt offers a wide variety of other health benefits.   As a novice bird keeper long ago, I learned that flamingos denied sufficient shrimp and canthaxanthin soon “bleach-out”…today we still know far more about this topic as it relates to birds than to amphibians. But some of that knowledge may have applicability to herps – in any event, I hope that more private keepers and researchers will take an interest. I’ll stay alert for updates; in the meantime, please post any relevant thoughts and links below, thanks. Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo. Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.   Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.  

Further Reading

Nutritious Foods for Frogs and Toads Cricket Nutrient Level Study Cricket Care and Feeding

Small Pet Turtles: Black-Breasted Leaf Turtle Care

Geoemyda spengleri

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Stavenn

Small size, a uniquely-beautiful shell and the habit of raising the long neck to “stare” at its owner with large, protruding eyes endears this charming turtle to all. I first came across the Black-Breasted Leaf Turtle (Geoemyda spengleri) while working on plans to conserve Asian turtles devastated by collection for the food and medicinal trades (please see article linked below). Although reputed to be a delicate captive, zoo and private turtle keepers have learned much about its needs in recent years, and captive-born animals are becoming more available. Under the care of an experienced turtle keeper, this personable beauty can make a wonderful pet that exhibits all the spunk of its larger relatives.

 

Turtle Description

This little turtle’s “bug-eyed” stare is often the first characteristic to grab one’s attention. The elongated carapace is strongly notched at the rear, and each marginal scute (scale) is pointed and flared upwards. The carapace ranges from dark to rich orange-brown in coloration, and the plastron is black with a yellow border. Adults top out at a mere 4-5 inches in length.

 

Leaf Turtle Natural History

G. spengleri habitat type

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Jtri

The Black-Breasted Leaf Turtle ranges from southern China through Laos and Vietnam, where it is mainly restricted to moist hillside forests; the uniquely-shaped carapace offers excellent camouflage among the leaf litter. Although largely terrestrial, shallow forest pools and streams are used for soaking and foraging. Its life in the wild has not been well-studied.

 

Pet Qualities

Although shy at first, these alert turtles adjust to captivity quickly, and soon learn to feed from the hand. Black-Breasted Leaf Turtles have a reputation as delicate captives, and losses were high when they first showed up in the US pet trade in the 1980’s. Parasitic infections, the stress of shipping and a poor understanding of their needs were largely responsible for early difficulties with wild-caught individuals.

 

The Terrarium

Black-Breasted Leaf Turtles are native to thickly-vegetated habitats, and will not thrive in bare enclosures. Cover in the form of live or plastic plants, caves, and a substrate into which they can burrow is essential to their well-being. A pool of shallow water should be available.

 

Although small in size, these turtles are quite active once habituated to their new homes, and should be provided with as much room as possible. A single adult may be kept in a 30 gallon long-style aquarium, but additional room is preferable.

 

Terrarium Substrate

A mix of topsoil, peat and sphagnum moss, deep enough for your pet to burrow into, may be used as a substrate.

 

Lighting

Black-Breasted Leaf Turtles must be provided with a source of UVB radiation. Natural sunlight is best, but it must be direct, as glass and plastic filter-out UVB rays.

 

When using UVB bulbs, be sure that your turtle can bask within the distance recommended by the manufacturer. I favor Zoo Med bulbs, which are available in a wide variety of strengths and styles.

 

Heat and Humidity

Although native to tropical regions, Black-Breasted Leaf Turtles prefer cooler temperatures than one might expect. A temperature gradient of 68- 74 F should be established, along with a basking site set at 80 F.

 

Humidity should be kept at 50-60%, and areas of both moist and dry substrate should be available.

 

tp35833Turtle Feeding

The wild diet consists primarily of insects, worms, snails, carrion, and small amounts of fruit. Pets should be offered a diet comprised of whole animals such as earthworms, crickets and other insects, prawn, canned snails, minnows, an occasional pre-killed pink mouse and a variety of fruits (many refuse fruit, and seem to do fine without). Goldfish should be used sparingly, if at all, as a steady goldfish diet has been linked to kidney and liver disorders in other turtle species.

 

Commercial turtle chows are not accepted unless moistened, and then not always. The calcium requirements of Black-Breasted Leaf Turtles, especially growing youngsters and gravid females, are quite high. All foods (other than whole fish) should be powdered with a reptile calcium supplement. A cuttlebone may also be left in the cage. Vitamin/mineral supplements may be used 2-3 times weekly.

 

Breeding

A single, unusually-large egg (rarely 2) is produced 1-3 times yearly. Females sometimes have difficulty passing their eggs, especially if the diet lacks sufficient calcium.

 

Gravid (egg-bearing) females usually become restless and may refuse food. They should be removed to a large container (i.e. 5x the length and width of the turtle) provisioned with 6-8 inches of slightly moist soil and sand. Gravid females that do not nest should be seen by a veterinarian as egg retention invariably leads to a fatal infection known as egg peritonitis. It is important to note that females may develop eggs even if un-mated, and that captives may produce several clutches each year.

 

Eggs incubated at 82 F typically hatch in 62-75 days.

 

Males may stress or bite females during mating attempts. Males cannot be kept together, as they will usually fight. Females also establish a dominance hierarchy, and must be watched closely if kept in groups.

 

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook. Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank Indiviglio.

 

Further Reading

The Asian Turtle Extinction Crisis

Nest Sites for Female Turtles

 

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