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The Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis carolinensis) in the Wild and Captivity – Care in Captivity – Part 4

Click here to view Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3 of this article. If you’re looking for information on Green Anole Natural History, click here.

Candidates for the Mixed-Species Terrarium

I have kept green anoles with 5 lined skinks, house geckos, brown anoles, green, gray and squirrel treefrogs, southern and spadefoot toads, DeKay’s (brown) snakes, various millipedes and land snails (…and water moccasins, but that was at the Bronx Zoo.  As they say “don’t try this at home“!). 

I once established a group of green anoles in the upper half of a 300 gallon aquarium housing tropical fish – they take readily to such situations if provided ample branches and live plants upon which to climb.

Captive Longevity

Captive longevity approaches 10 years, but averages 5-7.

Handling

Green anoles are high strung and do not take well to handling.  They are fast moving and make long, seemingly reckless leaps, so be careful when opening their terrarium.  Let them see you open the enclosure, and do so slowly – in time, the anoles will move to safe, elevated locations as opposed to coming towards you.  They will, however, watch you closely and may take an opportunity to flee if you turn your back, so close the lid or door when reaching for tools, etc.  A small net might be useful to have on hand.  Green anoles shed their tails readily when grabbed forcibly.

Breeding

Please see also “Reproduction”, in Part I of this article, for notes on distinguishing the sexes.  Captive breeding has occurred spontaneously, but is most consistently achieved when the animals are exposed to cyclic changes in temperature, light and humidity levels.  Watch for young animals, as undetected eggs may hatch within the terrarium.

Green anoles originating from the northern portions of the range require longer and cooler “winters” than do those from the south.  In fact, southern-range animals are different, physiologically, from those in the north.  Experiments have shown that anoles living in south Florida are killed by the winter-time temperatures routinely tolerated by those native to northern Florida.  You can assume that pet trade animals are from the more southerly portions of the range (usually central/south Florida and Louisiana).

Cooling off periods of 60 days or so may stimulate reproduction.  Nighttime temperatures should be allowed to dip to 60-65 F for animals originating in the northern sections of the range, and 62-68 F for those from the south.  Daytime temperatures can rise to 81-83 F.  The daytime light cycle should gradually be reduced to 9-10 hours from the usual 12-14 (cover the cage during the day if it is located in a well-lit room).  Misting should be reduced to once daily.

Potted plants make ideal egg deposition sites.  Eggs incubated in vermiculite (1:1 vermiculite:water by weight) at 82-86 F will hatch in 32-46 days.

I’m very interested in mixed-species exhibits and terrariums.  Please write in with your own experiences.  Thanks…until next time, Frank Indiviglio.

An interesting article on anole reproductive and social behavior, as well as a review of this species’ 100-year history as a laboratory animal, is posted at:

http://dels.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/45_1/pdfs/v4501lovern.pdf

The Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis carolinensis) in the Wild and Captivity – Care in Captivity – Part 3

Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.  Please see Part I and Part II of this article for further information on Green Anole care. For Green Anole Natural History, Check out here

Social Grouping

Keeping Several Males Together

Male anoles usually establish territories of at least 4 ft x 4 ft x 4 ft in captivity, so “one male only” is the rule in most home situations.   However, establishing 2 males in a suitably large enclosure is a worthwhile undertaking if at all possible.  If enough space is provided so that each can establish a territory, the males will display vigorously but will largely avoid physical contact (if crowded, the dominant animal will attack the other).  The presence of a competitor for female attentions may spur the males to breed as well. 

 

Be sure to keep at least 3-4 females per male when attempting multi-male exhibits, as their presence may divert attention from aggressive displays and combat.  Another key to success lies in providing a complex environment filled with escape routes and sight barriers.  Vines, hanging plants and inter-twined branches will go a long way in increasing the effective size of your enclosure.

The Value of Smaller Pets and Zoo Animals

Observing anoles in colony-type situations will provide you with insights not possible in single-animal terrariums.  I have always preferred to keep smaller animals that could be well-provided for in captivity, as it is from these that we can truly get a feel for how life is conducted in the wild.  

In a zoo or at home, one can more easily provide a “complete environment” for an anole than for an alligator.   Surrounded by creatures from all over the world during my years working for the Bronx Zoo, it was to those creatures most able to carry out a full range of behaviors that I was drawn.  I learned far more sitting in a greenhouse watching a colony of nearly “free-living” green anoles than I did in  front of multi-million dollar exhibits that, for all their good qualities, provided rhinos, bears, gorillas and other large mammals only a minimal replication of their wild habitats.

Female Dominance

Female green anoles will also establish a dominance hierarchy, based largely upon size. Those at the top may inhibit others from feeding and basking, so be sure to offer numerous basking and feeding opportunities and sight barriers.

 

Immature males are difficult to distinguish from females.  Watch smaller animals as they mature and remove any males, as these will be attacked by the adult male (please see Part I of this article for tips on distinguishing the sexes).

Compatible Species

Anoles, if given enough room, are ideally suited for community terrariums.  In the wild, they dwell in “edge habitats” (areas where 2 distinct habitat types meet) such as meadow-forest borders, and in the ecologically similar overgrown fields and gardens.  Habitat borders and edges usually support a greater variety of animals than do the interiors of either associated habitat. 

The moderate temperatures and humidity levels favored by green anoles are suitable for a wide range of other interesting creatures.  It is often difficult to house amphibians and reptiles in the same enclosure, due to the great differences in their requirements, but green anoles uniquely span this gap.

Mixed-Species Considerations

When maintaining a mixed group of animal species, always provide more space than would be required for the same number of individuals in a single-species terrarium.  Be sure also to keep in mind the different feeding strategies of each.  For example, American toads will likely gobble up all non-climbing insects before anoles even begin to feed. On the other hand, anoles will leave no food for nocturnal hunters, such as green treefrogs, if all feeding is done during the day (the solution is to add a portion of the diet after the lights have gone out).

Check back on Friday for the conclusion of this article.

Happy New Year to you and yours!

Frank Indiviglio

The Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis carolinensis) in the Wild and Captivity – Care in Captivity Part 2

Click: The Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis carolinensis) in the Wild and Captivity – Care in Captivity Part I, to read the first part of this article.

Light, Heat and Humidity
Green AnoleGreen anoles rarely live for long if maintained without full spectrum lighting. If a florescent bulb is used, be sure that all animals can bask within 12 inches of it (within 20 inches of the Zoo Med 10.0 UVB Bulb). These lizards are completely diurnal and most active in bright sun, and UVA and UVB are essential if they are to thrive and reproduce. Horizontal and diagonal branches are preferred over vertical perches as basking sites.

Zoo Med’s High Output 10.0 Florescent Bulb is a fine source of UVB light for green anoles. The Zoo Med Reptile Halogen Bulb is ideal for providing UVA, along with heat for the basking site. For larger cages, a Mercury Vapor Bulb will supply UVB over a greater distance than will a florescent bulb.

The ambient air temperature should be 84-87 F, with a basking spot of
92-95 F. Over-night temperatures can dip to the low-mid 70′s, assuming the animals are in good health (use a ceramic heater or Reptile Nightlight Bulb if supplementary nighttime heating is required).

Green anoles prefer moderate to high humidity levels, but need to bask and dry out as well. The terrarium should be misted twice daily, more often if needed to combat the drying influence of incandescent bulbs. A screen top should be used to ensure adequate air circulation.

Feeding
Crickets and Commercially Available Insects
A “cricket only” diet, while convenient, should be avoided. I have found that a varied diet is vital for long-term maintenance of green anoles. When using crickets, be sure to select only half-grown or smaller animals for adult anoles, as they are prone to blockages when fed adult crickets. The crickets should themselves be well fed before being offered to your pets.

Small roaches, waxworms, butterworms and mealworm beetles should also be provided. Anoles are often reluctant to come to the ground to feed, so provide these insects in a cup suspended among the branches. Pinch off several legs of the roaches in order to keep them confined – being nocturnal, they will likely escape notice if released into the terrarium. Only small, newly molted (white in color) mealworms should be fed to green anoles, and these not more than once monthly.

Wild Caught Insects – the most important part of the diet
Wild caught insects (i.e. collected via Zoo Med’s Bug Napper) should be provided often. Anoles under my care have been particularly fond of moths, flies, tree crickets, hairless caterpillars, harvestmen (“daddy longlegs”) and small spiders. During the warmer months of the year, I collect nearly all of the invertebrates that I give to insectivorous reptiles, but even an occasional wild-caught insect will be of great value to your pet. The Bug Napper is indispensible in this regard. Small silkworms and house flies should be ordered from insect suppliers periodically.

Canned Insects
In order to increase dietary variety, anoles should be acclimated to tong feeding and offered canned grasshoppers, silkworms and other commercially-available insects.

Nectar and Water
Wild anoles of various species have been observed lapping at sap and nectar, although in my experience not all green anoles do so in captivity. The following mixture, suspended in cups set among the branches, should be offered weekly:
1/3 jar papaya, apricot or mixed fruit baby food
1 teaspoon honey
¼ teaspoon liquid bird vitamins or powdered reptile vitamins
Water sufficient to achieve syrupy a consistency

Anoles will not drink water from bowls (some will if the water is kept in motion by an air stone); their enclosure should be misted twice daily.

Frequency of Feeding
Green anoles have fairly high metabolisms and do best on small frequent feedings – meals should be provided daily or every other day. This is especially important in group situations, where competition may limit feeding opportunities for some animals. The food of adults should be sprinkled with a reptile vitamin/mineral supplement twice weekly.

Green anoles are taken for granted – while not “easy”, they are manageable with a bit of effort, and may well turn out to be one of your most interesting lizard-keeping endeavors. I’ll continue with their captive care next time. Until then, please write in with your own thoughts and questions. Thanks, Frank

The Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis carolinensis) in the Wild and Captivity – Care in Captivity Part I

Hi, Frank Indiviglio here. Please see Green Anole Natural History for information concerning the natural history of the green anole and its relatives.

General
Green AnolesGreen anoles became a US pet trade staple in the 1960′s and early 70′s. Labeled “chameleons” due to their color-changing abilities, millions were collected in Florida and Louisiana and sold at circuses, fairs, pet stores and through the mail. In time, they became the “first lizard” for a generation of budding herpetologists. A host of grossly inappropriate supplies (including lapel chains!) and husbandry techniques assured most of the unfortunate creatures a short and unhappy captive existence.

My Less-Than-Promising Start
I remember well purchasing a green anole (packaged, oddly enough, in a small pie box) at the famous Ringling Brothers, Barnum and Bailey Circus at Madison Square Garden in the early 60′s. I knew enough to bypass the recommended diet of “sugar water and dried ant eggs” but was ignorant of the beast’s UVB requirements. I did, however, gather that it craved sunlight, and during one basking trip the lizard escaped up a caterpillar- laden apple tree where, I hope, it at least enjoyed the NYC spring and summer.

A Bit Delicate, but Well-Worth the Effort
Green anoles do reasonably well in captivity but are not the hardy, “starter lizards” they are often proclaimed to be. They are prone to stress-related ailments, require careful attention to the diet, and are quite sensitive to light, temperature and humidity levels.

That being said, I feel that their potential is largely ignored – a properly maintained group will readily display numerous social interactions, and makes as active and interesting a lizard exhibit as can be imagined. What’s more, establishing a colony of green anoles in such a situation is well within the financial and space constraints of many pet keepers, which cannot be said of most lizard species.

My co-workers at the Bronx Zoo frowned when I began adding green anoles to several large exhibits, but they (the lizards, not co-workers!) quickly became crowd pleasers. Even in an exhibit housing 2 huge water moccasins, it was the leaping, displaying anoles that drew most of the public’s attention.

Enclosure and Physical Environment
Green anoles are highly arboreal and will prefer the upper reaches of their enclosure. Branches of various thicknesses and orientations should be provided, along with plentiful sight barriers in the form of suspended live or artificial plants.

Despite their small size, green anoles require a good deal of room, as they are very active and are easily stressed by tight quarters or if confined too closely to one another. Ideally, a trio should be provided with a well-planted, 20 gallon aquarium.

Males are intolerant of each other. If several females are kept, horizontal and diagonally oriented basking sites (these are preferred over vertical branches) should be plentiful, as dominant animals will exclude others from these important areas.

Anoles do best in complex exhibits, especially those with live plants. They are quite easy on live plants, and really do look at their best when among them. Snake plants, pothos, Philodendron, peace lilies and many others will be well-used by these little gymnasts, and the areas between large leaves make naturalistic nocturnal retreats.

Arboreal shelters, in the form of cork bark and hanging plants, should be provided. These and similar sight barriers are important, as females will establish a dominance hierarchy, and subordinate animals may be inhibited from feeding or basking, even absent outright aggression.

The substrate should hold a bit of moisture but not be soggy. I recently used Exo-Terra Jungle Earth with a covering of Compressed Frog Moss and dead leaves in a public exhibit, and am pleased with the results. You can also use Keeper’s Choice Red CypressExo-terra Forest Bark or Coconut Husk, with any type of moss mixed in.

Click here: The Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis carolinensis) in the Wild and Captivity – Care in Captivity Part 2, to read the rest of this article.

Until than,

Frank

The Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis carolinensis) in the Wild and Captivity; – Natural History – Part 2

Click:The Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis carolinensis) in the Wild and Captivity; – Natural History – Part 1 to read the first part of this article.

Introduced Anoles
Green AnoleThe green anole is the only anole native to the USA, but eight other species, originating as escaped or released pets, have established breeding populations here. The most common and widespread is the brown anole (A. sagrei), now found throughout Florida and in southern Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas and Hawaii. In many areas it is now more commonly encountered than the green anole.

The knight anole (A. equestris), bark anole (A. distichus), large-headed anole (A. cybotes), Hispaniolan anole (A. chlorocyanus), Cuban green anole (A. porcatus) and Jamaican giant anole (A. gormani) are limited to the vicinity of Miami and Miami-Dade County at this time.

Ill Fated Pets
Green anoles were sold by the millions at carnivals, circuses and through the mail in the 1960′s and early 70′s. Termed “chameleons” due to their color changing abilities, most were fed “sugar water” and expired in short order.

Color Change – not as obvious as it seems
Color change in the green anole has little to do with the background upon which the animal rests (although the colors it exhibits are usually cryptic). Cool or stressed anoles are brown in color, while warm, resting individuals are pale green and warm, active animals are bright green. Anoles involved in aggressive displays develop a black patch behind the eyes.

Unique Climbing Aids
Green anoles are assisted in climbing by transverse lamellae on the bottoms of the toes and feet. These thin structures are divided by thousands of grooves, and provide excellent traction against tiny irregularities in the surface upon which the lizard is moving. Utilizing the lamellae, anoles can even grip dirt particles lodged on glass, and hence climb window panes and aquarium sides easily.

Cold Tolerance and its Conservation Implications
Research has demonstrated that anoles from south Florida lack the cold tolerance exhibited by those in north Florida, and could not survive the winters there. Information such as this is vital in planning reintroduction and captive breeding programs for animals with large ranges. Inter-breeding animals that originate in widely different parts of their range can have disastrous consequences, despite the fact that they are of the same species.

In one case, ibex (mountain dwelling goats) from several European countries were released in the Pyrenees Mountains, to bolster the local population. The animals reproduced, but the offspring resulting from the crossing of native and non-native ibex were genetically programmed to give birth in mid-winter, and the population eventually became extinct.

Onto captive care next time. Until then, please write in with your questions and comments. Observations from those of you who live in anole territory would be most appreciated. Thanks, Frank Indiviglio.

An interesting summary of research being conducted on free-living green anoles by students at UT Knoxville is posted at:

http://eeb.bio.utk.edu/echternacht.asp

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