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Contains articles and advice on a wide variety of snake species. Answers and addresses questions on species husbandry, captive status, breeding, news and conservation issues concerning snakes.

Venomous Snakes: Care and Habits of the Cottonmouth or Water Moccasin

Threat display

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Upload Bot (Magnus Manske)

Big and bold, the Cottonmouth or Water Moccasin is one of the most frequently-encountered of the USA’s venomous snakes. Stories of its alleged ferocity abound, and many folks living within its range are convinced that it goes out of its way to attack people. I’ve had the chance to work with this impressive serpent at the Bronx and Staten Island Zoos (Note: venomous snakes should never be kept in private collections), and to observe it in the wild, and have found its actual habits to be far more interesting than the supposed ones! From scavenging road-killed pigs to turning up in areas far north of where most people “expect” it, the Cottonmouth is full of surprises. Today I’ll focus on the natural history and captive care of the Eastern Cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorous picivorous), with some comments on the 2 related subspecies.


Typical adult

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Ltshears


Most Eastern Cottonmouths are olive to dark brown in color, and are patterned with irregular, dark cross-bands. However, nearly-black, pattern-less individuals are common, and hybrids (which vary in appearance) occur where its range overlaps with that of the Florida and Western Cottonmouths.

They are stoutly built, and this makes adults appear larger than their actual size. Most average 3 to 5 feet in length, but occasional “giants” turn up. The published record length is 6 feet, 2 inches…but there’s no shortage of people who will claim to have seen, or even killed, Cottonmouths twice or three times as large (note – they haven’t!).


Green Watersnake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by John Sullivan Cali

Several of the larger, non-venomous water snakes of the American Southeast are often confused with the Cottonmouth, as they are superficially similar in appearance and share the same habitat. And if you’ve ever tried catching a large Brown or Florida Green Watersnake, you’ll understand why most “non-herpers” give these irascible brutes as wide a berth as they do Cottonmouths!


The Cottonmouth is classified in the family Viperidae, and is most closely-related to the Copperheads and various Cantils of Mexico and Central America.



The Eastern Cottonmouth is found from southeastern Virginia to eastern Alabama and Georgia. I grew up associating Cottonmouths with Florida’s swamps and canals, and indeed it is there that the Florida Cottonmouth, (A. p. conanti) thrives in good numbers. I was surprised to learn, however, that the Western Cottonmouth(A. p. leucostoma)ranges much further north than I expected – to southern Illinois and eastern Missouri.


Typical Habitat

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Moni3


Cottonmouths are typically found in and along slow-moving bodies of water such as swamps, marshes, canals, rice fields, ponds and weedy lakes. However, they will forage in fields, open woodlands and around farms, often far from water. Individuals in many populations hunt mainly by night, especially during the summer, but they bask in the daytime.


In the northern sections of their range, Cottonmouths hibernate in subterranean dens on land, often on hillsides far from water. Hibernation sites may be shared with copperheads, rattlesnakes, water snakes, ratsnakes and other species.



Cottonmouths can be quite common in suitable habitat and in protected areas such as the Everglades, but are threatened in some regions by wetland drainage. Basking Cottonmouths are said to be used for “target practice” in some places…not much of a challenge, given their size and immobility when basking, I imagine!



Zoo specimens have reached at least age 24; several under my care were in their late teens, and still full of spunk. Longevity in the wild has not been well-documented, as far as I know.



Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Accipiter


In most populations,females breed every-other-year, usually in August and September. The young, 1-16 in number, are born alive and are 7-13 inches in length. They are reddish-brown and vividly marked, and use their bright yellow tail tips to lure frogs, lizards, and other prey. Sexual maturity is reached in 3-4 years.



Cottonmouths take a wider range of prey than do most other snakes, and even scavenge road-kills. I was once very surprised to read a journal note (Herpetologica?) describing a large individual consuming chunks of fat from a dead pig!


The usual diet is extremely varied, and may include catfish, bream, eels and other fish, sirens, amphiumas and other salamanders, frogs, hatchling alligators, small turtles, lizards, snakes, ducks and other birds, and mammals such as rice rats, muskrats and voles.


I once housed a colony of Green Anoles with a pair of Cottonmouths at the Bronx Zoo. Whenever I tossed roaches or crickets in for the lizards, the Cottonmouths would move about in an apparent search for food. I’m wondering if youngsters consume insects as well; the closely-related Copperhead has been observed feeding upon cicadas and grasshoppers.


Cottonmouths under my care were fed minnows, shiners, trout, goldfish, mice and rats; I’ve always meant to try crayfish, but unfortunately did not. Like many fish-eating snakes, they seemed perpetually hungry. The opening of their exhibit door, with or without the scent of food, generally elicited a mad rush forward. All those I’ve kept adjusted well to captivity – thrusting them away with a snake hook did nothing to damper their desire to feed!


Light-colored individual

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Hydriz

Additional Information

The name “Cottonmouth” arose from this species’ threat display – when cornered, it throws back its head and gapes widely to expose the cottony-white interior of the mouth. If this fails to dissuade the intruder, the snake strikes repeatedly. Basking animals usually drop into the water and swim away, either below or at the surface, when disturbed.


Classification of Cottonmouths and other Vipers

Cottonmouths and their relatives, collectively known as “pit vipers”, are placed in the family Viperidae and subfamily Crotalinae, along with palm vipers, rattlesnakes, copperheads and related species. They are considered to be the most advanced, or highly evolved, of all snakes.


Crotalids, or pit-vipers, possess a sophisticated sensory organ (the “pit”) that detects the infra-red rays produced by birds and mammals. Located between the eye and nostril, this organ is far more sensitive than the heat receptors that have evolved among the boas and pythons. The arrangement of the heat receptors within the pit viper’s sensory organs are replicated in the brain and integrated with visual information received there. The pit may thus be considered more of an “imaging device” than mere heat receptor, and likely provides detailed information concerning the size and shape, as well as location, of warm-blooded animals. Aided by these unique organs, pit vipers are able to hunt and escape predators even in complete darkness.


Vipers possess long, hinged fangs that fold back against the roof of the mouth when not in use. Venom is injected with a single bite, in the manner of a hypodermic needle. The snake then retires and allows the prey to run off, and follows its scent trail once the stricken animal has expired. This strategy spares vipers the injuries that can be inflicted by prey animals upon snakes such as cobras, which must hold on while injecting venom. When attacking frogs, fish and other relatively benign prey, however, Cottonmouths hold onto the animal after striking.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.


Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.


Further Reading

The World’s Largest Rattlesnake

Keeping Watersnakes



Hognose Snake: Breeding and Care for the Madagascar Giant

Giant Hognose Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by MrPanyGoff

North America’s Hognose Snakes are well-known for their impressive bluffs, which make them appear large and, to many people, dangerous. If this tactic fails, they feign death most convincingly. Even after a lifetime of working with snakes in zoos and the field, I cannot help but be awed and amused by these harmless “frauds”. But their acts pale in comparison to those given by the world’s largest hognose snake, the 5-foot-long, thickly-built Madagascar Giant, Leioheterodon madagascariensis. This fantastic snake is gaining in popularity, and rightly so…it is far more active than its American counterparts, and, unlike some of them, does not limit its diet to toads.



One can be forgiven for thinking that this impressive beast is related to the Hognose Snakes of North and South America. However, the two groups seem to be an amazing example of parallel evolution (adaptations to similar conditions) rather than close relatives.


Like the American hognose snakes, it is heavily-built, yellowish-tan to dark brown in color, and marked with brown, gray or black blotches. Upturned rostral scales on the pig-like snout, similar to those seen in the New World species, assist it in burrowing and unearthing prey.

Adults average 4-5 feet in length, but appear larger due to the thickness of their bodies.


At Kirindy reserve, Madagascar

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Tom Junek

When cornered, the Madagascar Giant Hognose Snake even puts on the same impressive defensive display used by its American namesakes – flattening the body and hissing loudly, after which it may roll over and feign death.


This species is sometimes offered under the common name of Malagasy Hognose Snake.


Range and Habitat

The Madagascar Giant Hognose Snake is, like many of the creatures that share its home, endemic to Madagascar and the nearby islands of Nosy Be and Nosy Sakatia. An introduced population is established on Comoro Island. Two slightly smaller related species, L. geayi and L. modestus, are also limited to Madagascar.


Natural Habitat

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Masindrano

It favors open habitats such as grasslands, sparsely-wooded savannas, forest edges, farms, and village outskirts.


A colleague of mine who was studying tortoises on Madagascar said that many large individuals would appear from below ground after every rain. They seemed to materialize from nowhere and immediately began foraging for the lizards, toads and small mammals that were also roused to activity by the weather. Single-minded in their pursuit of food, the snakes would glide into and through tents and campsites without so much as a second glance at the surprised biologists they encountered.


Temperament in Captivity

Madagascar Giant Hognose Snakes are rear-fanged, and produce mild venom that is used to overcome their prey. They are not considered to be dangerous to people, but cautions must be exercised by keepers, and the possibility of allergic reactions should be considered. They are best handled with snake hooks, and should be kept only by responsible, experienced adults. Consult your doctor before acquiring any snake that produces venom, however mild.


Like American hognose snakes, Madagascar Giants tend to bluff more than bite. However, individual dispositions vary, and these always-hungry snakes may strike at nearby movements, biting their keeper in the process. Always use a long-handled tongs when offering food or working in the cage.



Madagascar Giant Hognose Snakes are quite active, especially when compared to their American counterparts. Youngsters may be accommodated in 20 gallon aquariums, but adults should be provided a tank or custom-built cage measuring at least 4-5’ x 4’. The enclosure’s screen lid must be secured by cage clips, as they are very powerful, even by snake standards.


Natural burrowers, Giant Hognose Snakes are most comfortable below-ground. A deep layer of cypress mulch or eucalyptus bark is preferable to newspapers as a substrate. A dry cave may also be utilized.


Sheltering in Leaf Litter

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Tom Junek

Heat and Light

Madagascar Giant Hognose Snakes fare best at a temperature range of 80-85 F. An incandescent bulb should be used to create a basking spot of 90 F.


Large enclosures are necessary if a thermal gradient (areas of different temperatures) is to be established. Thermal gradients, critical to good health, allow snakes to regulate their body temperature by moving from hot to cooler areas.


A ceramic heater, heat pad, or red/black reptile night bulb can be used to provide heat after dark.



Not nearly as picky as North America’s Eastern Hognose Snake, which largely confines its diet to toads, the Madagascar Giant Hognose takes toads, frogs, lizards, small mammals and the eggs of tortoises, lizards and birds with equal gusto. Captive adults readily accept mice and rats, but hatchlings often prefer lizard or toad-scented rodents at first. In time, they can be weaned-over to un-scented mice.



Captive-bred individuals have been quite scarce in the past, but hopefully this situation will change as more reptile enthusiasts discover the charms of these spectacular snakes. A winter cooling period of 65- 68 F, with a basking spot of 80 F, will help to stimulate reproduction. Females produce up to 12 eggs, which hatch after an incubation period of approximately 2 months at 85 F. Hatchlings average 12 inches in length.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.


Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.


Further Reading

Your First Snake: Some Considerations

Study Hints at Global Snake Decline

Savu Python Care: Keeping One of the World’s Smallest Pythons

Savu Python

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by TomVickers

Pythons are highly valued by snake enthusiasts, but most become too large for the average household, and cannot be safely handled by young or inexperienced keepers. But in the early 1990’s a “big python in a small package” appeared in the pet trade, and its popularity has since soared. Averaging only 3 ½ to 4 ½ feet in length, the Save or White-Eyed Python (Liasis savuensis) is beautifully iridescent and calm in demeanor. And, with a natural range that spans a mere 60 square miles, this interesting snake is also important from a conservation perspective.



The Savu Python was first described in 1956, at which time it was classified as a one of three subspecies of the Macklot’s Python. Today, there is disagreement as to its species status, and many herpetologists continue to list it as Liasis mackloti savuensis.


Savu Python Description

The Savu Python’s outstanding features include brilliant iridescence and its noticeably-white eyes. Hatchlings are reddish-brown to rich orange in color. They undergo a radical color change with maturity, by which time most are dark brown and bear rusty-orange spots on the belly and sides. Some adults, however, are nearly black in coloration, while the scales of others retain an orange tinge.  Few adults exceed 5 feet in length, with most topping out at 3.5 – 4.5 feet; only 3-4 of the world’s 40 python species are as small.


Range and Habitat

The Savu Python is found only on the 10 mile x 6 mile Indonesian island of Sawu (also known as Savu), off Australia’s northwestern coast. It has the smallest natural range of any python.


Liasis mackloti savuensis

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by TimVickers

Although this snake’s natural history has not been well-studied, reports indicate that it is a habitat generalist. Savu Pythons have been found in wooded grasslands, palm thickets, thorn scrub, and along the ocean shore.


The Terrarium

Hatchlings may be started-off in 10 gallon aquariums. Adults can be accommodated in a 30-55 gallon aquarium. Screen tops must be secured with clips and a hide box should always be available.



Newspapers and washable terrarium liners may be used as a substrate. As some keepers have reported that Savu Pythons seem prone to mouth irritations and infections, those kept on cypress chips http://bitly.com/Plr8BA or similar substrates are best moved to bare-bottomed enclosures at feeding time.



Pythons do not require UVB light, but may benefit from the provision of a UVA bulb.



The ambient temperature should range from 75-84 F. Incandescent bulbs can be used to create a basking site of 90 F. Ceramic heaters or red/black reptile “night bulbs” may be employed to provide heat after dark. If needed, under-tank heaters http://bitly.com/SRpr5g can be used to further warm the basking surface.


Provide your snake with the largest home possible, so that a thermal gradient (areas of different temperatures) can be established. Thermal gradients, critical to good health, allow reptiles to regulate their body temperature by moving between hot and cooler areas.



Little is known about the diet of wild Savu Pythons, but they likely prey upon small mammals and, perhaps, ground-dwelling birds and lizards. Small food items, such as mice or rat pups, are preferable to large, even for adults. Except for females being readied for b breeding and growing youngsters, Savu Pythons are best fed every 14 days.


Water should always be available. Bowls should be filled to a point where they will not overflow when the snake curls up within.



Savu Pythons are typically calm in disposition, and generally tolerate gentle handling. Like all snakes, however, care must be exercised when working around them.



Breeding activity is stimulated by a 2-3 month period of reduced temperatures (72 F by night, 82-85 F by day) initiated in late autumn. Clutches generally contain 5-10 eggs, which may be incubated in moist vermiculite at 88-90 F for 55-65 days. Hatchlings average 11-14 inches in length.


Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook. Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.


Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank Indiviglio.


Further Reading


Python Eats Crocodile: Giant Snake Meals


Green Tree Python Care and Natural History

Venomous Snake Identification: the Best Online Guide for US Species


Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Geoff Gallice

As the weather warms, snake identification requests are becoming more common on my blog. Of most concern to those unfamiliar with reptiles is the possibility of encountering venomous species. Often, a fleeting glance is all that has been had, and identification proves very difficult. So today I’d like to direct folks to some useful online and published resources that are useful to review before a snake is sighted as well as after. Of course, please continue to post your questions and observations as well…some species are quite distinctive, and other times the location of the sighting or certain behaviors can be used to narrow down the possibilities.


I’ve been involved with snake bite response efforts through the Bronx Zoo and other organizations for most of my working life, and have learned that, in the USA, most bites occur when people disturb snakes or keep venomous species as “pets”. Worldwide, the situation is different, with an astonishing number of people being bitten, often fatally, in the course of their daily activities (please see the article linked under “Further Reading”). Please heed the cautions provided below.


Note: The following information should not be used to determine if a snake is safe to handle or approach, nor should any other printed guideline. Aberrations in color or pattern, injuries, hybridization and other factors – including the very real possibility of escaped non-native “pets” – can render identification impossible to all but a well-seasoned expert. Concerning exotic escapees, bear in mind that we still have much to learn…and that two prominent herpetologists were killed by snakes thought to be relatively harmless! Also, please note that the flood of both accurate and outright ridiculous information on the internet sometimes inspires a feeling of false confidence in the inexperienced, and gives credence to the old saying “A little knowledge is a dangerous thing”!


Coral Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

The primary resources listed here are based on Florida’s venomous snakes. However, Florida is home to representatives of each type native to the USA, and the state’s museums and universities have a long history of fine educational efforts in this area. Specifics as to species found in other parts of the country will vary…please see the notes on field guides, and post below if you would like a guide to the species present in your state or region.


University of Florida Website

Prepared by the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, Dealing with Snakes – IS IT VENOMOUS? provides a great overview of the 4 general types of venomous snakes found in the USA – copperheads, rattlesnakes, cottonmouths and coral snakes.   The most easily-recognizable characteristics of each are highlighted, which makes it simpler for inexperienced observers to decide whether a harmless or venomous snake has passed their way.


You can also view individual pages on each of Florida’s venomous snakes. These include additional characteristics, habitat notes, photos, range maps and other useful details.


Timber rattlesnake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Rkillcrazy

Florida Museum of Natural History Website

The FMNH Snake Identification Key is based on the detailed identification tools used by professional herpetologists and serious snake-watchers. However, it has been modified to focus on color and pattern only – those characteristics that tend to catch the average observer’s attention, and which are easier to recall than finer details. Once you’ve eliminated characteristics that do not fit the snake you’ve seen, and have made a tentative identification, you can click on a photo and see if it matches your observation.


Using keys to identify a snake can be fun, and it’s easy to turn the process into a game that children will enjoy and benefit from.


Field Guides

I’ve relied on the Peterson Field Guides and their predecessors since childhood, and they remain the gold standard for on-site reptile and amphibian (and other animal) identifications. There is also a “first field guide” series and a wonderful field guide coloring book for children. Please check here for further information on these.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.


Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.


Further Reading

Venomous Snakebites: My experiences and a New Study


Black Mamba Memories 


Rattlesnake Overview

Your First Pet Snake: A Checklist of Things to Consider

Honduran Milksnake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Haplochromis

Snakes are almost mainstream pets these days, but I still see evidence that many people jump into snake ownership without fully considering all that is involved. In the course of my work as a reptile keeper at the Bronx Zoo, and now as a consultant for ThatFishPlace-ThatPetPlace, I’ve come-up with a list of important points that, if considered beforehand, will greatly improve life for both snake and snake owner. As always, please be sure to post any questions, or additional factors that you have found to be important, below. Please also see the articles linked below for my “best pet snake” recommendations.


Captive-Bred vs. Wild Caught: This is much easier to check today than in years past. Snakes born in captivity do not drain wild populations, are less likely to harbor parasites or diseases, and are generally easier to handle than are their wild relatives.


Handle-ability and other Pet Qualities: Snakes will not seek human companionship…as legendary snake expert Bill Haast put it “You can have a snake for 30 years, but leave the cage open, and it’s gone – and it won’t come back unless you have a mouse in your mouth”! Snakes definitely adjust to captivity, and some species accept handling better than others, but they should not be expected to be “friendly”.


The “It Doesn’t Do Anything” Factor: Ideally, the new snake owner will be interested in her or his pet for its own sake. But we also wish to see how it lives, what it does, and so on. Most snakes, especially well-fed pets, are about as active as the infamous “pet rock”!   If you want motion, consider a small species that actively forages for its food, and keep it in a large, naturalistic terrarium. A pair of Garter Snakes in a well-planted 55 gallon tank will provide you with infinitely more to observe than will a Burmese Python in a large zoo exhibit.


Western Garter Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Steve Jurvetson

Costs of Owning A Snake: Your pet’s initial purchase price is but one part of the cost of snake ownership, which also includes electricity use, veterinary care (as expensive as dog/cat care), food, enclosure, and so on. With some planning, you can easily limit costs. A Garter Snake needs only a 20 gallon aquarium with (in winter) a low-wattage basking bulb, and a diet of minnows and earthworms…much less expensive than a 6 foot-long Boa Constrictor kept in a custom-made cage heated year-round with powerful bulbs and feeding upon pre-killed rats.


Veterinary Reptile Care: Reptile-experienced veterinarians are difficult to find in many regions. Trust me – it is a grave mistake to embark on snake ownership before locating a veterinarian, or to imagine that even the hardiest of species will not require medical care.  Please post below if you need assistance in finding a reptile-experienced veterinarian in your area.


Safety: All snakes, even the shyest and smallest, will bite when threatened, and they may react to scents, vibrations and other cues that we cannot perceive. Even minor bites should be treated by a doctor, to avoid infection, tetanus and other complications. Large constrictors have killed their owners and venomous species, which should never be kept, are regularly offered for sale. While easily managed with proper hygiene, Salmonella, which is generally carried by all reptiles, presents grave risks to certain people. Please see the article linked below and contact your doctor for advice.


Space: While snakes can make due with less space than many other creatures, you’ll see more of interest if your pet has ample room to move about. Be sure to research (feel free to post below) your snake’s ultimate size and typical growth rate. And please remember – zoos will not accept unwanted pets and, even if native, they cannot be released into the wild!


African House Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Purplegerbil

Time Commitment: Depending upon the species and size of your pet, its care can range from a short, more-or-less weekly job (Kenyan Sand Boa) to a major, near-daily chore (Indigo Snake). Long term care should also be considered – Corn Snakes and other popular pets regularly live into their teens and twenties, while Ball Pythons may exceed 30, 40 or even 50 years of age!


Diet: Not everyone (or everyone’s significant others!) can accept a pet that consumes dead rodents. Unfortunately, Smooth Green Snakes and other insect-eaters usually refuse crickets and other readily-available foods (canned silkworms may be a useful alternative). The fish-eating Water Garter and Ribbon Snakes are a good option for many folks.

Considering a snake purchase is an important decision. If you need more time to consider the aspects of owning a snake, print out the following abbreviated check list:

Captive-Bred vs. Wild Caught: Captives tend to be easier to give care
Handle-ability and other Pet Qualities: Don’t expect them to be “Friendly”
The “It Doesn’t Do Anything” Factor: Small active species vs. larger docile species
Cost: Initial Purchase Price vs. Price of Ownership
Veterinary Care: Do you have access to a local veterinarian with reptile experience?
Safety: Properly treating bites and Salmonella and avoiding dangerous and poisonous species
Space: Consider your pet’s ultimate size and growth rate
Time Commitment: Ranging from species that require weekly care to ones that require daily attention, along with respect to their lifespans that can reach as high as 50 years
Diet: Ability to handle or accept that many reptiles eat or require dead rodents

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.


Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.


Further Reading

The Five Best Pet Snakes

The Best Small Snake Pet

Preventing Salmonella Infections


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