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Contains articles and advice on a wide variety of snake species. Answers and addresses questions on species husbandry, captive status, breeding, news and conservation issues concerning snakes.

Western Hognose Snake: Care, Color Morphs and Natural History

North America’s Hognose Snakes are well-known for their impressive defensive displays. I’ve found the Eastern Hognose in its natural habitat and have bred it for a release program during my tenure at the Bronx Zoo. But as this snake limits its diet to toads, it is rarely seen in zoos or private collections. The Western Hognose Snake (Heterodon nasicus), on the other hand, has gained a following among snake-keepers that is usually reserved for rat snakes, boas, and pythons. It seems to be the most popular of the “non-typical” snakes kept, at least here in the USA. Reasons for this abound, including a “viper-like” appearance, dramatic defensive display, calm demeanor, non-demanding diet, and willingness to reproduce. Selective breeders have been thrilled with this species as well – as evidenced by the astonishing 52 “designer color morphs” that have been produced!

 

Weastern Hognose snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Dawson

I’ve also had the good fortune to work with the very impressive Madagascan Giant Hognose Snake (Leioheterodon madagascariensis); please see the article linked below for further information.

 

Classification

Two snakes formerly considered to be subspecies of the Western Hognose Snake have now been described as full species – the Dusky Hognose (H. gloydi) and the Mexican Hognose (H. kennerlyi). Also included in the genus are the Eastern Hognose Snake and the Southern Hognose (H. platyrhinos, and H. simus, see photos).

 

Description

The Western Hognose Snake is heavily-built, yellowish-tan, gray, or dark brown in color, and marked with black blotches. Upturned rostral scales on the snout assist it in burrowing and unearthing prey. Adults average 2 feet in length, but appear larger due to the thickness of their bodies; the published record size is 35 ¼ inches.

 

I was surprised to find that the number of color morphs available now rivals those established for those two pet trade heavyweights, the Ball Python and Corn Snake. At least 52 color and pattern variations, with fanciful names such as Albino Super Anaconda, Coral, and Pistachio, are now being offered. You can see photos of many at the site linked below.

 

Type habitat

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Dustin M. Ramsey.

Range and Habitat

The Western Hognose Snake’s range extends from southeastern Alberta to northwestern Manitoba, Canada, and south to southeastern Arizona, Texas and northern Mexico; isolated populations may be found in Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois and Missouri.

 

Largely terrestrial and often sheltering below ground, the Western Hognose favors open habitats such as sandy or sand/gravel prairies, thorn scrub, and lightly wooded grasslands, and has been found to elevations of 8,000 feet above sea level.

 

Temperament in Captivity

Western Hognose Snakes are rear-fanged, and produce mild venom that is used to overcome their prey. They are not considered to be dangerous to people, but the consequences of allergic reactions or of a bite to a child, senior citizen or immune-compromised individual should be considered. Consult your doctor before acquiring any rear-fanged snake.

 

Puff Adder

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Johannes van Rooyen

When cornered, the Western Hognose Snake flattens the body and hisses loudly, after which it strikes, usually with a closed mouth. When pressed further, it may roll over and feign death. Captives soon give up this charade, which in any case is rarely as dramatic as that put on the Eastern Hognose.

 

Many people see a close resemblance between this snake and the several rattlesnake species that share its range. As you can see from the photo, a similar appearance and display is seen in other Viperids as well, such as Africa’s Puff Adder.

 

The Terrarium

Youngsters may be accommodated in 10 gallon aquariums. Average-sized adults can be kept in a 20 gallon long-style aquarium, with a 30 gallon being preferable for extra-large individuals or pairs. The tank’s screen lid must be secured by cage clips, as they are very powerful, even by snake standards.

 

Natural burrowers, Western Hognose Snakes are most comfortable below-ground. A deep layer of cypress mulch or aspen is preferable to newspapers as a substrate. I’ve kept Eastern Hognose Snakes on a sand/gravel mix, but the possibility of impactions has been raised by some keepers; please post below for further information.

 

Native to arid environments, Western Hognose Snakes do not fare well in damp enclosures.

 

Eastern Hognose Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Bladerunner8u

Heat and Light

Western Hognose Snakes do well at a temperature gradient of 75-82 F. An incandescent bulb or sub-tank heat pad should be used to create a basking spot of 90 F.

 

A ceramic heater, heat pad, or red/black reptile night bulb can be employed to provide heat after dark.

 

Diet

Not nearly as picky as its east coast cousin, the Western Hognose takes toads, lizards, other snakes, rodents and the eggs of turtles, lizards, and birds with equal gusto.; locusts and other large invertebrates have also been reported as food items.  I recall one study in which this species was identified as the major nest predator of an endangered turtle (the details escape me right now).

 

Captive adults readily accept mice, but hatchlings prefer lizard or toad-scented pink mice at first (some keepers report that water from canned tuna also works well). In time, they can be weaned onto unscented mice.

 

Breeding

In their natural habitat, Western Hognose Snakes breed from March-May, and females deposit 4-25 eggs approximately 3 months later. The 6-7.5 inch long youngsters hatch in 7-9 weeks, and are sexually mature at 2-3 years of age. The published longevity for this species is just short of 20 years.

 

Pets are not so closely tied to the seasons as are wild individuals. Please post below for detailed information on captive breeding.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 Further Reading

Madagascar Giant Hognose Snake Care

Western Hognose Color Morphs

The USA’s Only Native Rear-Fanged Vine Snake: Care and Natural History

Mexican Vine Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by berichard

Although I’ve cared for Latin American and Asian vine snakes in zoos, and have searched their natural habitats, I had somehow missed the fact that one occurs in my own country, the USA. In extreme south-central Arizona may be found a “tropical-looking” snake seems somewhat out-of-place (to me, at least!) – the Mexican or Brown Vine Snake (Oxybelis aeneus). Being rear-fanged, high strung and quite demanding as to its diet, the Mexican Vine Snake is not recommended for other than well-experienced keepers. However, in both behavior and appearance it is most fascinating, and well-worth more interest and study.

 

 

Range and Habitat

Habitat type

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Sergio Sertão

 As mentioned, the Mexican Vine Snake is unique among similar species in that its range extends into the USA…but just barely. The US population is limited to the Atascosa, Patagonia and Pajarito Mountains in the south-central tip of Arizona. The remainder of its range is huge, extending from Mexico to Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia, and including the islands of Margarita, Trinidad and Tobago.

The Mexican Vine Snake inhabits relatively arid environments, including dry forest edges, overgrown thickets, wooded grasslands, brushy hillsides and densely-vegetated canyons. In common with the other 3 species in the genus, it is entirely arboreal.

Size and Coloration

Mexican Vine Snakes are very thin and “vine-like” in profile (no surprises there!). Although somberly-colored, their various shades of gray, silver and copper blend together in an attractive manner. A dark line extends from the snout through the eye and down the neck. The chin and area below the eyes are usually bright yellow in color. Typical adults measure 4 1/2 – 5 feet in length.

The Mexican Vine Snake is a rear-fanged species that uses venom to kill its prey (please see below).

Green Vine Snake, Oxybelisfulgidus

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Dimitri Eggenberger.

Also included in the genus Oxybelis are three other Latin American species, the Green Vine Snake (please see photo), Cope’s Vine Snake, and Roatan Vine Snake.

The Terrarium

Mexican Vine Snakes are best housed in large, vertically-oriented terrariums or custom-built cages. Zoo Med’s Repti-Breeze cage would be a good choice for a moderately-sized individual, but a large adult would require more room.

Climbing space is essential. The enclosure should be provided with numerous branches and tangles of real or artificial vines. Ideally, their living quarters should also be stocked with live plants, which will provide a sense of security and hiding spots. Hanging potted pothos has worked well for me. Most individuals prefer sheltering among plants and vines to hollow cork bark or other arboreal caves. If live plants are not used, hanging artificial plants and dry Spanish moss may be substituted. Mexican Vine Snakes will not thrive in small enclosures, or if denied above-ground cover.

t255908Like many arboreal snakes, Mexican Vine Snakes will drink water sprayed onto the body; some will also accept water from a bowl. As they do not take well to disturbances, cypress mulch or similar materials that allow for spot-cleaning are preferable to newspapers as a substrate. The cage should be located in a quiet area of the home. An ambient temperature range of 75- 80 F is ideal, with a basking site set at 88 F.

Some keepers believe that low levels of UVB light and UVA exposure are beneficial to this and related species.

Asian Green Vine Snake consuming frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by L. Shyamal

Diet

The natural diet is comprised of lizards, treefrogs and small birds; small arboreal rodents and insects may also be taken, but detailed field studies are lacking. Brown Anoles, Mediterranean Geckos and several other small lizards that have been introduced to Florida are the most reliably-available captive foods (in my experience, anoles were favored over others). Chicks and pink or fuzzy mice are taken by some individuals. The use of large food items has been linked to intestinal blockages, and I’m not certain that a rodent-only diet would be ideal long-term.

Youngsters feed primarily upon frogs and lizards, and usually refuse all else. Scenting a pink mouse leg with a frog or anole may induce feeding.

Care Notes

Waste must be removed in a manner that does not disturb the snake or expose one to a bite. The cage should be misted lightly each day, but dry conditions should prevail. As individuals offered for sale will likely be wild-caught, a veterinary exam is recommended for all new additions to your collection.

Breeding

Captive breeding has rarely been accomplished, and is not well-documented in the literature. Research into this area by private keepers would be most valuable to this snake and its relatives. Field observations indicate that 4-8 eggs are typically produced.

Green Vine Snake Threat Display

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Jayendra Chiplunkar

Temperament

Mexican Vine Snakes are notoriously high-strung, and should be viewed as creatures to observe rather than handle. When approached, they open the mouth to expose its black interior and strike repeatedly (please see photo of Asian Green Vine Snake threat display).

Although the venom produced is not considered dangerous to people, the possibility of an allergic reaction, and the consequences of a bite to a child, elderly person, or immune-compromised individual, must be considered. Your doctor should be consulted before a rear-fanged snake of any species is acquired.

Blunt Headed Treesnake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Geoff Gallice

Other Vine Snakes

Asian snakes of the genus Ahaetulla also go by the common name of “vine snake”. Although they closely resemble the New World species in form and habits, they do not appear to be closely related. Several are available in the trade from time to time. I’ve kept the strikingly-beautiful Green or Long-Nose Asian Vine Snake (Ahaetulla nasuta; please see photos) at the Bronx Zoo – the experience was well-worth the time and energy invested in its care! Please post below for further information.

The Cloudy Snail-Eating Snake, Blunt-Headed Treesnake (please see photo) and 1-2 others of the genus Imantodes sometimes appear in the pet trade under various “vine snake” names as well.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

Further Reading

Rough and Smooth Green Snake Care

Keeping Snakes in Planted Terrariums

Rear Fanged Snakes: Fascinating, Venomous, and Not a Good Pet Choice

South American Hognosed Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Matt872000

The term “rear fanged” is applied to a variety of unrelated snakes that possess a venom-producing gland and 1-3 enlarged, grooved maxillary teeth in the rear of the mouth. We do not yet know how many species possess these venom-conducting teeth (“rear fangs”), but evidence indicates that snake venom evolved some 60 million years ago – before non-venomous snakes came into being. Therefore, all present day species may have evolved from venomous ancestors, and may possess at least the traces of venom glands. The rear-fanged snakebites I’ve dealt with in the course of my career have elicited only mild reactions. Some rear-fanged species, however, have caused fatalities – two very “famous” fatalities, in fact (please see below).

 

Snakes Best Kept in Zoos

As individual sensitivities and other factors can greatly affect one’s reaction to a bite, even “mildly venomous” species must be considered as potentially dangerous. A lifetime of experience as a zookeeper and herpetologist has taught me that it is impossible for a private snake owner to adequately prepare for or treat a venomous snakebite at home, or, prior to a bite, to arrange for treatment in a hospital.

 

Tentacled Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Rishaada

Until we learn more about them, rear fanged snakes are best considered as suitable for display in zoos rather than private collections. Tentacled Snakes (Erpeton tentaculatum) and certain others may be an exception, but I advise consulting a herpetologist and an experienced medical doctor if you feel compelled to acquire a rear-fanged snake of any species.

 

Boomslang

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Rishaada

 

 

Overview

Rear fanged snakes are classified in the huge family Colubridae (the “Typical Snakes”), but are not necessarily closely-related to one another. The term is applied to a variety of species that possess the venom-producing Duvernoy’s Gland. One, two, or three of the maxillary teeth in the rear of the mouth are enlarged and bear grooves on their front surfaces. Venom released by the Duvernoy’s Gland flows down these grooves and into a prey animal or foe. A period of “chewing”, in the manner of cobras and other Elapids, may be necessary in order to fully discharge the venom.

 

This method of introducing toxins into a wound is rather ineffective when compared to that employed by rattlesnakes and other Viperids. Also, many rear fanged species produce venom that is most or only effective against the specific animals upon which they feed. Therefore, not all present a threat to people.

 

Twig Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Kwamikagami

However, much remains to be learned. For example, Boomslangs (Dispholidus typus) and Twig Snakes (Thelotornis kirtlandi) were not widely believed to be dangerous until each killed a prominent herpetologist! (I use “widely” because both were feared by local people).

 

Size

At an adult size of 8 inches, North and South America’s Crowned Snakes, (Tantilla spp.), are the smallest rear fanged species known.

 

Mangrove snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Seshadri.K.S

Widely-distributed through much of Southeast Asia, the 7-foot-long Mangrove Snake (Boiga dendrophila), is the largest. This spectacular snake’s size and striking coloration render it much desired in the trade, and many are held in private collections. Those I’ve kept in zoos have remained high-strung and difficult to work with. Fatalities have not, as far as I know, been attributed to their bites, but large individuals can store up a substantial quantity of venom – I’d leave these beauties alone!

 

Diet

Many rear fanged snakes have evolved toxins that specifically target reptiles and amphibians, and may specialize in hunting lizards (Mexican Vine Snake, Oxybelis aenus), frogs and toads (Malagasy Giant Hog-Nosed Snake, Lioheterodon madagascariensis) or fish (Tentacled Snake, Erpeton tentaculatum).

 

Green Vine Snake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Dimitri Eggenberger.

Others, such as the Mangrove Snake (Boiga dendrophila), are generalists that consume a variety of creatures, including birds and mammals. The tiny Crowned Snakes, Tantilla spp., limit their diet to earthworms, centipedes, beetle grubs, and other invertebrates.

 

“Harmless Snakes” with Venom

Recent research has shown that 2,000 or more snake species, many considered “harmless”, likely produce true venom. Most do not have efficient rear fangs, and produce toxins that pose no danger to people, but this does point out the need for caution and research.

 

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

Further Reading

Venomous Snakebites: My Experiences and a New Study

The USA’s Most Dangerous Snake?

 

Rosy Boa or Colombian Red-Tailed Boa? Choosing the Best Snake Pet

Large adult Boa Constrictor

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Pavel Ševela

Boa Constrictors have been pet trade staples for decades. Of the 10 described subspecies, the Colombian or Red-Tailed Boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) is the best known, and is in fact one of the most popular snake pets. Commercially bred in huge numbers, the Colombian Boa is an excellent choice for some, but not all, snake enthusiasts.

North America’s Rosy Boa (Lichanura trivirgata), on the other hand, has only come into its own recently as a pet, but interest in now skyrocketing. Those with limited space who are seeking a “big snake in a small package” need look no further than this inoffensive beauty.

In the following article I’ll compare the care needs of Colombian and Rosy Boas, so that you’ll be able to plan ahead and maximize your pet-keeping experience and your snake’s quality of life. Detailed care information is provided in the articles linked under “Further Reading”. As always, please also post any questions you may have, and let me know which species gets your vote.

 

Rosy boa

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Theodore Garland, Jr.

Handle-ability

Although individual personalities vary, both adapt well to gentle handling. Rosy Boas tend to hide their heads when frightened, and their smooth, glossy scales may render handling a bit tricky. As with any snake, care and adult supervision must be exercised, and the animal’s head should never be allowed near one’s face.

 

Colombian Boas are not domesticated animals and must never be handled carelessly, as even long-term pets may react to scents or vibrations that people do not perceive. Bite wounds from Colombian Boas can be severe, and pets should never be carried about one’s neck (other similarly-sized constrictors have caused human fatalities by tightening quickly about a handler’s neck). Two experienced adults should always be on hand when specimens over 6 feet in length are fed, cleaned or handled.

 

Size

Colombian Boas average 5-8 feet in length, and are stoutly built. However, some individuals grow quite a bit larger – up to 13 feet, 6 inches and 14 feet for the record holders, both captured in Surinam.

 

Averaging only 24-30 inches in length but also heavily-built for their size, Rosy Boas are obviously much easier than Colombian Boas to house and maintain.

 

Boa constrictor in natural habitat

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Belizian

Activity Levels

Neither is overly active, but they regularly move between basking sites and shelters, and are likely to wander about the cage when hungry.

 

Life Span

The published longevity for a Colombian Boa is just over 40 years; pets regularly survive into their 20’s and 30’s.

 

The published longevity for a Rosy Boa is 29+ years (living at time of publication), and many captives approach and exceed age 20.

 

Newborn boa

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by DestructiveEyes

Breeding Potential

Both species breed reliably, and make an excellent introduction to this fascinating aspect of reptile-keeping. I especially like the fact that they bear live young, doing away with the time, expense and worry (for us!) of egg-incubation.

 

Cost

The purchase price for a normally-colored individual is similar for both snakes. Prices increase for rare or unusual color morphs – to $5,000 or more for “special” Colombian Boas!

 

However, the normal coloration of each species is spectacular, and natural variations, especially for the Rosy Boa, are seemingly endless. Several Rosy Boas that I encountered while studying insects in Baja California, which were blue-gray and marked with 3 pinkish-orange stripes, stand out as being among the most beautiful snakes I’ve seen.

 

The Colombian Boa’s great size makes it vastly-more expensive to keep when compared to its smaller cousin, the Rosy Boa.

 

Rosy boa, adult

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Shane O. Pinnell

Terrarium Size (single adult)

Colombian Boa: 250-300 gallon terrarium or a huge custom-built cage

 

Rosy Boa: 20-30 gallon terrarium

 

Temperature

Colombian Boa: 75-85 F, with a basking site of 90 -95 F; basking bulb and sub-tank pad recommended.

 

Rosy Boa: 75-85 F, with a basking site of 90-95 F

 

Diet

Food intake will vary among individuals and with temperature, season, life cycle stage, and other factors. Both accept pre-killed rodents.

 

Rosy Boa feeding

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Cole Shatto

Colombian Boa: 1 appropriately-sized mouse each 7-10 days for youngsters. Adults do fine when offered an appropriately-sized rat each 10-14 days. Some keepers use guinea pigs or small rabbits for especially-large adults.

 

Rosy Boa: Fuzzies and young mice are preferable to adult mice (Rosy Boas have rather small heads and their jaws are ill-suited to swallowing large meals). Youngsters should be fed each 7-10 days, adults each 10-14 days.

 

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

Breeding the Rosy Boa

Boa Constrictors and Their Relatives: Care and Natural History

 

 

 

Rat Snake Care: the Russian Ratsnake – Large, Bold and Beautiful

Russian Ratsnake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Rvanbeusichem

Powerful and boldly-marked, the Russian Ratsnake (Elaphe schrencki)  is one of the largest of the robust constrictors commonly known as ratsnakes. Even those with a lifetime of snake experience (myself included), are awed by their first encounter with this impressive beast. To me, it’s always seemed somehow fitting that such spectacular creatures as the Siberian Tiger and Amur Leopard share the Russian Ratsnake’s range. Also known as the Amur Ratsnake, Siberian Ratsnake, and Manchurian Watersnake, it has long been hard to come by, but European and American snake enthusiasts are now producing captive bred animals regularly.

 

Rat Snake Description

An indigo to black background marked with bright yellow or white cross-bars renders the Russian Ratsnake a most striking creature. One of the longest snakes in northern Asia, it may reach or slightly exceed 6 feet in length.

 

Japanese Ratsnake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Snowmanradio

A number of interesting color morphs, such as all-black, white-blotched, striped, and high-gold, as well as hybrids with Japanese Ratsnakes (E. climacophora; please see photo), have been developed by breeders.

Range and Habitat

The Russian Ratsnake’s range is centered in Siberia’s Amur River Basin, and radiates out to eastern Mongolia, northern and central China and Korea. An introduced population is established in Elder, the Netherlands (I almost instinctively typed “Florida”!). This group apparently originated from animals that escaped local greenhouses, where they are kept as a rodent-control measure. The government is studying their effects on local wildlife and eradication possibilities.

 

Russian Ratsnakes are usually found near a water source, and adapt to temperate forests, alpine woodlands, marshes, overgrown fields, brushy scrub, agricultural areas and a variety of other habitats. Like Texas Ratsnakes and other American species, Russian Ratsnakes often colonize farms, where they are alternately valued as rat-killers and reviled as chicken thieves. Excellent climbers, they seem equally at home on the ground or in trees.

The Terrarium

Those experienced with Corn Snakes and related species will find Russian Ratsnakes to be more active than their American counterparts. They should be provided with proportionally larger accommodations. While a 55-75 gallon aquarium will suit small adult, larger individuals are best housed in custom-built cages measuring at least 6 x 5 x 5 feet. Ample cage height and stout climbing branches will be appreciated.

 

Cypress mulch, eucalyptus bark and similar materials may be used as a substrate. In common with Indigo Snakes and other active, robust reptiles, Russian Ratsnakes tend to make a mess of the old snake substrate standby, newspapers. A dry shelter and another stocked with moist sphagnum moss should be provided.

 

Ambient temperatures should be maintained in the range of 70-76 F, with a basking site of 82 F.

 

Habitat type

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Grapetonix

Breeding

Captive breeding, although far from regular in the past, is becoming more common. A 3-4 month cooling off period at 50-52 F will stimulate reproduction.

 

Clutches range from 6-30 eggs in size, and are usually deposited in June-July. As an adaptation to the short summers in their native range, female Russian Ratsnakes retain their eggs for a time, and deposit them in a well-advanced state. At an incubation temperature of 82 F, they typically hatch within 40 days.

 

The hatchlings measure 11-15 inches in length and differ markedly from adults, being light gray in color and sporting black specks and reddish blotches.

 

Diet

The Russian Ratsnake’s appetite knows no bounds. Wild individuals take squirrels, rabbits, bats, gerbils, birds and their eggs, voles, chipmunks, and many other creatures with equal gusto. Pets do well on a diet comprised of mice and rats; large adults will accept guinea pigs and weanling rabbits as well.

 

Temperament: Most individuals are quite calm in demeanor once accustomed to their surroundings. However, as with all large snakes, one must exercise appropriate caution when they are handled.

 

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

Further Reading

Black Ratsnake Care

Keeping the Red-Tailed Ratsnake

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