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Contains articles and advice on a wide variety of turtle and tortoise species. Answers and addresses questions on species husbandry, captive status, breeding, news and conservation issues concerning turtles and tortoises.

Spotted Turtle Care: Is This Beauty the Perfect Small Turtle Pet?

Spotted turtle

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Howcheng

The Spotted Turtle measures only 4-5 inches when fully grown, and is brightly-colored, alert, friendly and hardy…small wonder it is esteemed by turtle keepers worldwide. Although the days when I could count on finding several each summer are long gone (it is now rare in the wild), captive-bred individuals are readily available – if quite expensive! But those who give this endearing little turtle a place in their collections become instant fans, and never regret the price they paid. Shallow water specialists, Spotted Turtles are infinitely easier to care for, and require far less space, than do Sliders, Painted Turtles or any of the other more commonly-kept semi-aquatic species.

 

Range

The Spotted Turtle inhabits a large area of North America, but it is unevenly-distributed, and nowhere to be found in abundance. Its range extends from southern Ontario and Quebec south along the Atlantic Coastal Plain to central Florida and west through Pennsylvania to northern Indiana and northeastern Illinois.

 

Spotted Turtle habitat

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Valerius Tygart

Habitat

This unique turtle is a true habitat specialist, being restricted to the shallow, thickly-vegetated waters of bogs, swamps, sloughs and other marshy wetlands. Hatchlings are highly aquatic, but adults spend some time in moist fields and woodlands. Over-collection and habitat loss have decimated populations, which are now protected; please be sure to purchase only captive-bred individuals.

 

Description

The bright to light yellow spots that mark the black carapace render the Spotted Turtle nearly invisible among duckweed, yet startlingly conspicuous in an aquarium. Among the world’s smallest turtles, adults measure a mere 4-5 inches in length.

 

Housing

Spotted Turtles are small but quite active, always foraging and exploring their environment. They should be provided with as much room as possible. A well-designed 20 gallon long-style aquarium is adequate for a single adult, but additional room is always appreciated.

 

The water in the aquarium should be of a depth that allows the turtle to reach the surface with its head without needing to swim. Floating plastic or live plants should be provided as cover for the always-shy hatchlings (they are on the menus of predators ranging from giant water bugs to bullfrogs, and naturally-wary!). Adults become quite bold, but still prefer aquariums with cover, driftwood, and caves to bare enclosures.

 

The aquarium should be equipped with a dry basking site, UVB bulb, heater, and powerful filtration. A water temperature range of 68-76 F, with a basking site of 88-90 F, is ideal.

 

mediaDiet

Wild Spotted Turtles feed upon fish, tadpoles, snails, carrion, insects, crayfish, shrimp, salamanders, frogs and aquatic plants. Pets should be offered a diet comprised largely of whole animals such as minnows, shiners, earthworms, snails, crayfish, and prawn. Some adults will also accept dandelion, zucchini, collard greens, apples and other produce. Roaches, crickets and other insects may also be provided. A high quality commercial turtle chow can comprise up to 60% of the diet.

 

Spinach and various cabbages may cause nutritional disorders. Goldfishes should be used sparingly, if at all, as a steady goldfish diet has been linked to kidney and liver disorders in other species.

 

A cuttlebone should be available to supplement the calcium provided by whole fishes and similar foods.

 

Feeding Note

Turtles are messy feeders, and quickly foul even well-filtered aquariums. Removing your pet to a plastic storage container at feeding time will lessen the filter’s workload and help to maintain good water quality. Partial water changes (i.e. 50 % weekly) are also very useful. Filters designed specifically for turtles, if serviced regularly, are usually preferable to those marketed for use with tropical fish. Some folks find it easier to maintain their aquatic turtles in plastic storage containers that can easily be emptied and rinsed.

 

Basking

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Davepape

Temperament

Spotted Turtles are as hardy and responsive as the more commonly-kept sliders, and are now being regularly bred by hobbyists. Although somewhat shy at first, most soon learn to rush over for food when approached. Spotted Turtles must be watched carefully if housed in groups. Males often harass females with mating attempts, and may stress or bite them in the process. Males should not be kept together, as they will usually fight.

 

Breeding

Mating and egg deposition occurs from April-August. Breeding behavior may be stimulated by a winter resting period at reduced temperatures, but this should not be attempted without expert guidance (please post below for further information).

 

Females produce 1-2 clutches of 1-8 eggs. Gravid (egg-bearing) females usually become restless and may refuse food. They should be removed to a large container (i.e. 5x the length and width of the turtle) provisioned with 6-8 inches of slightly moist soil and sand. The eggs may be incubated in moist vermiculite at 82-84 F for 50-85 days.

 

Gravid females that do not nest should be seen by a veterinarian as egg retention invariably leads to a fatal infection known as egg peritonitis. It is important to note that females may develop eggs even if unmated, and that captives may produce several clutches each year.

 

Useful Spotted Turtle Care Products (please post below for further information)

 

Commercial turtle docks 

 

Turtle filters

 

Zoo Med 10.0 UVB bulb

 

Mercury vapor bulbs

 

Incandescent (heat) bulbs

 

Aquatic turtle diets

 

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

Turtle or Tortoise – Which is the Best Reptile Pet for Me?

Radiated Tortoise

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Hectonichus

Turtles and tortoises often appeal even to those who would not dream of keeping – or allowing their children to keep – a snake or lizard. Their good reputation as pets is due in part to generally amiable natures and the degree of responsiveness they exhibit to people. But the needs of these interesting reptiles are not always well-understood by first-time owners, and choosing between turtles and tortoises, and among the individual species, can be a daunting task. Today we’ll look at what is involved in turtle and tortoise ownership, so that you can decide which would be best for your particular situation. As always, please post any specific care questions you may have below.

 

Please Note

The terms “turtle” and “tortoise” are used interchangeably for some species, and in different ways throughout the world. Most commonly, “turtle” refers to semi-aquatic and aquatic animals, while “tortoise” is used for those that spend their time on land.

 

The following points are general in nature. Please see the linked articles and post below for detailed information on the care of individual species.

 

Smooth softshell

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by EyeYubel

Space Requirements

Turtles and tortoises need far more living space than most people realize, and many grow faster and larger than one might expect.

 

Among turtles, the commonly-kept Red-Eared Slider is a perfect example. Females (the larger sex) will very quickly reach 8-12 inches in length, at which point they will require a 75-100 gallon aquarium, a commercial turtle tub, or a wading pool. The smaller males, as well as some Musk, Mud, Map and Painted Turtles, might (depending upon the species) get by in a 20 to 55 gallon aquarium. Although hard to resist as hatchlings, Common Snapping Turtles and most Softshells grow very large, and they can be dangerous.

 

Tortoises generally need even more space than do turtles, with nearly all requiring a custom-built cage or fenced outdoor area. In addition to being very active, tortoises fare poorly unless provided with a thermal gradient. Thermal gradients, critical to good health, allow tortoises to regulate their body temperature by moving between hot and cooler areas (small cages quickly take-on the temperature of the basking site). Aquariums are ill-suited for use as tortoise homes, as they do not provide the ventilation (or space) required by most.

 

Pancake Tortoise

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Davepape

Life Support Equipment

All tortoises and turtles must have access to a source of UVB radiation, a heated living area, and a hot basking spot. For most owners, this translates into the purchase of UVB bulbs and fixtures, basking bulbs and fixtures, heat mats and ceramic heaters (tortoises) and aquarium heaters (turtles). Expenses can be trimmed somewhat if one keeps Mud and Musk Turtles, or those few other aquatic species that can get by without UVB if provided a proper diet.

 

Aquatic turtle tanks must also be equipped with powerful filters. Housing your pets in easily-dumped plastic bins eliminates the need for filtration, but this option has drawbacks in terms of visibility and aesthetics.

 

Tortoises hailing from deserts and other arid habitats are susceptible to respiratory infections in even slightly-humid environments. Therefore, a de-humidifier may be essential.

 

mediaDiet

It is in the area of nutrition that turtles and tortoises diverge most noticeably. With few exceptions, turtles are the easier of the two groups to maintain. Zoo Med and other commercial turtle pellets, earthworms, sun-dried or fresh shrimp and several other easily-obtained foods will keep most in good health and breeding condition. Nearly all, however, should be provided with whole minnows and similar fishes on a regular basis (these are the best source of calcium and other important nutrients).

 

Healthful tortoise diets, on the other hand, can be difficult to arrange, and the needs of the various species differ greatly. Poor nutrition is the leading cause of death among captive tortoises. Please see the linked article and post any questions you may have below.

 

Fly River Turtle

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Mistvan

Workload

I receive many questions and complaints centering on the amount of work involved in keeping turtle aquarium water clean. Turtles are messy feeders, and very hard on water quality. Powerful filters help, but partial or total water changes will still be necessary (and filtration medium needs frequent replacement).

 

Land-dwelling tortoises are fairly simple to clean-up after, unless one has a large collection or concentrates on the giants of the group. For example, a pair of 80 pound African Spurred Tortoises (“Sulcatas”) under my care at a zoo brought back memories of cleaning rhino pens as a fledgling animal keeper decades ago!

 

Human Health Considerations

Salmonella bacteria are likely present in the digestive tracts of all turtles and tortoises. Handling an animal will not cause an infection, as the bacteria must be ingested. Salmonella infections are easy to avoid via the use of proper hygiene, but are a serious concern for children and elderly or immune-compromised adults. Please speak with your family doctor and see the article linked below for further information.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

Caring for Red-Eared Sliders, Painted and Map Turtles

 

Keeping Desert, Rainforest and Grassland Tortoises

Is a Red-Eared Slider a Good Pet? Read This Before Buying a Turtle

Sliders basking

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Bizarria

The Red-Eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) is without question the world’s most commonly-kept pet turtle. But while these attractive reptiles are extremely responsive to people, many novice owners underestimate the amount of care and space their upkeep requires…and do not realize that Sliders commonly live to age 20+, and often well beyond. Over time, these factors lead many people to release or re-home their once beloved pets. As a consequence, Sliders have become established, in the wild, in dozens of US states and in countries ranging from Brazil to South Africa and Japan, where they are causing ecological havoc. Turtle adoption services and reptile rescues house literally thousands more unwanted pets. Please read this article carefully before buying or adopting a Red-Eared Slider, and be sure to post any questions below. Please also see the linked articles on the care of Sliders, Map Turtles and similar species.

 

Slider in outdoor pond

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Lawrencekhoo

Aquarium Size and Upkeep

Female Sliders reach 8-12 inches in length. I personally measured one that was just over 12 inches long…and 11 ¾ inches wide! Males generally top out at 6 inches, but both sexes are very active, and will languish in cramped quarters. An adult female will require a 75-100 gallon aquarium, a commercial turtle tub, or a wading pool. Pairs rarely do well together, as the overly-amorous males constantly harass the objects of their desire with mating attempts.

 

Turtles are messy feeders and very hard on water quality. Powerful filters help, but even so partial or total water changes will be necessary. If a large plastic storage container is used as a home, it must be emptied and cleaned several times weekly.

 

Slider nesting

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Nephets

Cost

With so many being up for adoption, Slider ownership might appear to be a good deal. But the initial purchase price of any reptile is generally the smallest of the related financial considerations. In addition to large and expensive aquariums and filters, Slider ownership entails electricity use, veterinary care, and the purchase of UVB bulbs and fixtures, heat bulbs and fixtures, water heaters, basking platforms, food, and mineral supplements.

 

Veterinary Care

Veterinarians willing to treat reptiles are difficult to find in many regions, although those experienced in turtle care are becoming more common. It is always a mistake to obtain a reptile of any kind before locating a veterinarian, or to imagine that even the hardy Slider will not require medical care at some point. Veterinary costs for reptiles are comparable to those charged for dog or cat care.

 

Hatchling slider

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Jf268

Longevity

Sliders routinely reach age 20 in captivity, and have the potential to live much longer. The published longevity record is 41 years, but I’m quite sure, judging from experience with related species, that there are some that have exceeded the half-century mark. That cute little hatchling you bought for your child may become your (much larger!) responsibility when she or he goes off to college.

 

Health Considerations

Salmonella bacteria, commonly present in turtle digestive tracts, can cause severe illness in people. Handling an animal will not cause an infection, as the bacteria must be ingested. Salmonella infections are easy to avoid via the use of proper hygiene, but are a serious concern for children and elderly or immune-compromised adults. Please speak with your family doctor and see the article linked below for further information.

 

Razorback Musk Turtle

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Ltshears

Slider Alternatives

Several Map and Painted Turtle species share the Slider’s lifestyle, good nature and hardiness, but do not grow quite as large. Common Musk Turtles, Eastern Mud Turtles and a number of their relatives are even smaller, and do not need a source of UVB radiation. All make great pets, and become quite responsive to people. There are a great many other possibilities as well…please see the linked articles and post below for further information.

 

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook. Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank Indiviglio.

 

Further Reading

Common Musk Turtles in Captivity: the Perfect Pet Turtle

Slider, Map and Painted Turtle Care

 

 

 

Diamondback Terrapin Care: Keeping the USA’s Most Unique Turtle

Diamndback terrapin

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Tom

The Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) is often described as the most beautiful turtle in the Western Hemisphere, if not the world. It is also distinguished by being the only turtle adapted to life in estuaries, salt marshes and other brackish habitats (water that is neither fresh nor marine). Long considered a delicate pet, the needs of this spectacular animal are now well-understood, and captive-bred specimens are increasingly available. My first Diamondback, received in childhood, was a hatchling. That ill-fated creature was quickly consumed by a Blue-Claw Crab (long story!), but later experiences with this species in the wild, at home and in zoos has (hopefully!) enlightened me as to their proper care. We still have much to learn, however, so please post your own observations below.

 

Description

The Diamondback Terrapin varies greatly throughout its range, but is always breathtaking. The carapace, marked with deep concentric grooves and ridges, is unique in the turtle world. Other shell markings vary, with the most eye-catching being born by the aptly-named Ornate Diamondback (M. t. macrospilota) of Florida. The skin is also unusually-attractive, ranging from pearl-gray to black in color, and decorated with dark flecks and slashes. Males average 5-6 inches in length, while females may approach 10 inches.

 

Range and Habitat

Although the Diamondback Terrapin is a habitat specialist, its range is among the largest of any US turtle. Seven subspecies are found along the Eastern and Gulf coasts of the USA, from Cape Cod, Massachusetts through the Florida Keys and along most of Texas’ eastern coast (to the vicinity of Corpus Christi). An isolated population lives along Bermuda’s coastline.

 

Diamondbacks are found only in those habitats that straddle the line between fresh and salt water – coastal salt marshes, estuaries, tidal flats near river mouths and protected lagoons. Highly aquatic, they often bask by floating at the water’s surface. Some populations also spend varying amounts of time in purely-marine water.

 

Tidal creek

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Captain-tucker

Tidal creeks spanned by footbridges are great places to observe wild Diamondbacks. If unmolested, they will forage and bask without regard for prying eyes. I know of several sites on Long Island, NY where, due to the height of the footbridges, I can sometimes see terrapins picking snails and other invertebrates from bridge pilings.

 

Populations have been decimated by collection for the food trade and habitat loss, and many perish as “by-catch” in commercial crab traps. These unique turtles are protected throughout their range, but regulated commercial harvesting is permitted.

 

The Terrapin Aquarium

Even by aquatic turtle standards, Diamondback Terrapins are extremely active. While a 75 gallon aquarium might suit a male, females need tanks of at least 100 gallon capacity, commercial turtle tubs or ponds.

 

A dry basking surface is essential. Commercial turtle docks and ramps suffice for smaller specimens, but adults will likely sink anything that is not affixed to the glass with silicone adhesive. Cork bark wedged between the aquarium’s sides is another option.

 

Hatchling

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Flickr upload bot

Salinity of the Water

While individuals from some populations have adapted to fresh water in captivity, keeping them so is not recommended. Fungal and bacterial skin infections are commonly seen when Diamondbacks are denied access to salt water, and internal ailments may develop as well.

 

Marine salt marketed for aquarium fish should be used to raise salinity to 1.014-1.018. Water evaporation will cause the salinity to increase (salt does not evaporate), so be sure to take weekly readings with an aquarium hydrometer. 

 

Diamondback Terrapins remove some salt from the water they ingest, but should also be placed in fresh water 1-2 x weekly and allowed to drink for 10-20 minutes. Some keepers do fine with less-frequent fresh water immersion, and by using rock salt instead of aquarium salt, but I prefer to err on the side of caution.

 

Filtration

Water quality is extremely important…more so than for most other turtles. Fouled water invariably leads to skin infections. As Diamondbacks are adapted to the alkaline water habitats, it is advisable to check your aquarium’s pH regularly with a simple test kit or pH strip. Turtle wastes and uneaten food will cause the water to become acidic, which will leave your pets open to attack by various fungi and bacteria.

 

Turtles are messy feeders and very hard on water quality. Unless the enclosure can be emptied and cleaned several times weekly, a powerful submersible turtle filter or canister filter will be necessary. Even with filtration, partial water changes are essential. Please see the articles under “Further Reading” for more on filtration, and links to useful models.

 

mediaRemoving your turtles to an easily-cleaned container for feeding will lessen the filter’s workload and help to keep the water clean; please see the article linked below.

 

Substrate

Diamondback Terrapins are best kept in bare-bottomed aquariums. Gravel traps wastes, which greatly complicates cleaning.

 

Light

A source of UVB radiation is essential. If a florescent bulb is used (the Zoo Med 10.0 UVB Bulb is ideal), be sure that the turtle can bask within 6-12 inches of it. Mercury vapor bulbs broadcast UVB over greater distances, and also provide beneficial UVA radiation.

 

Heat

Water temperatures of 70 – 76 F should be maintained. These large, robust brutes often break typical aquarium heaters, so choose a “turtle-proof” model. An incandescent bulb may be employed to heat the basking site to 85-90 F.

 

Green Crab

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Lmbuga

Feeding

The Diamondback Terrapin’s broad, crushing jaw surfaces are an adaptation to a diet comprised largely of hard-shelled crustaceans and mollusks such as crabs, snails, clams, mussels, barnacles and shrimp; fish, marine worms and algae (seaweed) are also taken. Pets should be offered a diet based upon whole marine animals such smelts, shiners and other bait fish, prawn, crabs (i.e. bait crabs), squid, conch, periwinkles (available in many seafood stores) and similar foods. I occasionally use bags of mixed “chowder” seafood as a means of adding variety to the diet.

 

Collecting Diamondback Terrapin food brings one into contact with countless fascinating creatures, so I try to gather or trap snails, mussels, clams, spider crabs and fishes for my charges whenever possible.

 

Most individuals will also accept commercial turtle pellets and trout chow, which can comprise 40-50% of the diet. I favor Zoo Med’s products and Reptomin.

 

Without sufficient exercise, your terrapin’s jaws will quickly become over-grown. Shells, exoskeletons and bones also supply calcium, which is needed in great quantities by this dietary specialist. A cuttlebone or turtle mineral block should be available as a calcium supplement and to supply beak-trimming exercise.

 

Breeding

Gravid (egg-bearing) females usually become restless and may refuse food. They should be removed to a large container (i.e. 5x the length and width of the turtle) provisioned with 6-8 inches of slightly moist soil and sand. Gravid females that do not nest should be seen by a veterinarian as egg retention invariably leads to a fatal infection (egg peritonitis). It is important to note that females may develop eggs even if un-mated, and that pets may produce several clutches each year.

 

The 4-20 eggs may be incubated in moist vermiculite at 80-82 F for 55-65 days.

 

Temperament

Diamondback Terrapins make very responsive pets. Most feed readily from the hand, and adapt well to busy households. However, all turtles are capable of administering powerful bites and scratches when frightened, and must be handled with care…this is especially true of a large species that can crush snail and clam shells!

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

The Best Turtle Filters

Keeping Semi-Aquatic Turtles

 

 

Red Eared Slider Turtles: Finding the Best Calcium Sources

Sliders basking

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Flicka

Red-Eared Sliders, Snapping Turtles, Red-Bellied Turtles, Soft-shelled Turtles, Reeve’s Turtles and the various Side-necks and Snake-necks are among the world’s most popular reptilian pets. While we know much about their care, the importance of calcium in the diet is, judging from the questions I receive on this blog, still not fully realized by all keepers. One feeding tip I received from an animal importer for whom I worked as a boy has served me well throughout my career as a zookeeper, and remains the simplest way to assure adequate calcium intake. Today I’ll review it and some other very useful calcium sources.

 

Fathead minnows

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Kolossus

Whole Freshwater Fishes

Whole freshwater fishes such as minnows and shiners are the best, “fool-proof” source of calcium for aquatic turtles. I rely heavily on commercially available fathead minnows (a/k/a/ “rosy reds”) and golden shiners. Both are usually raised in outdoor ponds, and have therefore consumed insects and other invertebrates in addition to prepared diets. This may give them a superior nutrition profile. Depending upon the turtle species in question, I offer fish at least once weekly.

 

I also use minnow and fish traps to catch local species, such as various dace and sunfishes (all of which also make fascinating aquarium inhabitants…but not with turtles!). I trim spiny pectoral and dorsal fins as a precaution. I also trap mummichugs (“killies”), shiners and other marine fish on occasion (these can also be purchased in bait stores). I’ve seen no problems when using these as part of the diet, but I rely primarily on freshwater species.

 

Freshwater food market species such as Tilapia, trout and white perch can be used for adult Common Snapping Turtles and other large pets. You can also feed sections of large fish to smaller turtles in order to add variety to their diets, but whole fishes with bones and internal organs should be their mainstay.

 

Mata Mata

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by J. Patrick Fischer

Years ago, a Bronx Zoo co-worker of mine linked goldfish-dominated diets to Mata-Mata Turtle (Chelus fimbriatus) deaths in several collections. Liver and kidney damage seem to have been involved. Used sparingly, goldfishes seem are harmless, but most zoos now avoid them.  Please see the article linked below.

 

Pre-killed pinkies (newborn, fur-less mice) are eagerly accepted by most aquatic turtles. Over-use has, however, led to kidney and liver disease in insectivorous lizards and frogs. I’ve not seen this with turtles, but have not used pinkies long term for any save several species of Australian Snake-Necks. I suggest erring on the side of caution and focusing on fish as a calcium source. I do not use furred rodents other than as a rare meal for large (“large” as in a 205 lb. Alligator Snapper and 45-60 lb. Common Snappers!) specimens.FI WITH ALL SNAPPER

 

Crayfish, Earthworms and other Invertebrates

Crayfish and other crustaceans, if fed with the exoskeleton/shell intact, are especially high in calcium. Earthworms have also proven to be a good calcium source, but levels will vary with diet. Earthworm calcium content (as well as that of crickets, roaches and others) is easy to improve if you feed them properly. Please see the articles linked below, or post here for further information.

 

Commercial Pellets

Commercial foods from Zoo Med and other well-respected companies can provide your pets with calcium and other important nutrients, but should not be used to the exclusion of whole fishes. Some that I favor and have used, for years in some cases, include Zoo Med products such as Aquatic Turtle Food, ReptiStcks and Gourmet Diet and Reptomin Food Sticks.

 

t8200Shrimp and Krill

Anecdotal evidence from several of my zoo colleagues indicates that shrimp (and krill) are an excellent calcium source for a variety of turtles…and I cannot recall many individuals that will refuse them! Frozen and freeze-dried shrimp and krill have long been used in tropical fish diets, and are readily available. You can also buy shrimp in food markets – “un-cleaned”, with shell intact, are the most healthful and least expensive choice. Most will be marine species, so I would not use as a basis of the diet.

 

Zoo Med’s Sun Dried Red Shrimp is, in my opinion, the best shrimp-option because a freshwater species (the Oriental River Shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense) is used.

 

Calcium Blocks

Some turtles will feed directly on calcium blocks and cuttlebone, which also provide beak-trimming exercise. Try offering Turtle Bone or similar products.

 

UVB

Turtles that bask in the sun (termed “heliothermic” species) cannot use the calcium that we provide in their diets unless they have access to UVB light of the proper wavelength. This is because they must manufacture Vitamin D3 in the skin – dietary sources of D3 are not sufficient for these species. There are some exceptions, perhaps, but if denied UVB, especially when young, most will suffer severe-to-fatal health problems brought on by a calcium deficiency. Fortunately, we now have a huge array of UVB-emitting bulbs at our disposal.

 

Softtshell turtle, Pelochelys cantori

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Flickr upload bot

Highly-aquatic species such as Common and Alligator Snappers, Pig-Nosed Turtles, Matas-Matas and Softshells usually do fine without UVB if provided a proper diet. However, as several of these bask at the surface in the wild, or occasionally on land, a UVB source would be useful as “insurance”.   Please see the article linked below and post here if you need specific information on UVB sources.

 

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook. Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank Indiviglio.

 

Further Reading

Goldfish as a Food Source for Turtles

Slider, Map and Painted Turtle Care

UVB Bulbs: Insights from Herpetologists

 

 

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