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Contains articles and advice on a wide variety of snake species. Answers and addresses questions on species husbandry, captive status, breeding, news and conservation issues concerning lizards.

The Best Substrate for Crested Gecko Terrariums: Avoiding Impactions

Crested Gecko

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by annakilljoy,

It wasn’t so long ago that one had to search through many books to find a photo of a Crested Gecko (Correlophus ciliatus), and seeing a live individual in a zoo was impossible. In fact, the species was presumed extinct in the early 1990’s! Today, these bizarre New Caledonian natives are captive bred in huge numbers, and are popular with reptile keepers worldwide. However, while their husbandry needs are well-understood, and rather easy to meet, substrate choice can be problematic. Judging by questions I’ve received lately and feedback from my zookeeper colleagues, intestinal blockages (“impactions”) caused by substrate ingestion are an important concern.

 

Coconut Husk: Good and Bad Points

Coconut husk, the most commonly recommended Crested Gecko substrate, has a down side. I’ve had great success using this product at home and in zoo exhibits housing tarantulas, centipedes, millipedes, land crabs, beetles and other invertebrates. However, it is commonly swallowed by reptiles and amphibians during the course of feeding – more often, it seems, than occurs with other substrates. Coconut husk has been implicated in most of the Crested Gecko impactions I’ve recently been informed of.

 

Leaping gecko

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Alfeus Liman

As is the case for other sometimes troublesome substrates, many keepers use coconut husk for Crested Geckos without incident. How do we explain this? Through discussions with veterinarian colleagues at the Bronx Zoo, I’ve learned that there are many variables which affect the passage of foreign materials through the body. The nature of the diet (and, of course, the swallowed material), hydration levels, calcium intake (calcium assists in muscle contractions, which may be needed to expel ingested substrate), general health and vigor and many other factors are involved. It seems best to err on the side of caution.

 

My Top Pick for Naturalistic Terrariums

I favor a mix of topsoil and sphagnum moss as a substrate for Crested Geckos and for many other species as well. Perhaps because of the size or consistency of the moss strands, sphagnum seems rarely to be ingested. I’ve successfully kept a great many amphibians and some reptiles on sphagnum moss alone. Moss that is taken into the mouth is, in the incidents I’ve observed, easily expelled.

 

Soil seems like it “should be” troublesome, but that has not been my experience…I hope to look into the reasons for this in the future. I use soil collected from wooded, pesticide free areas, but you can also purchase bagged “organic” or “chemical-free” soil. Be sure to avoid products that contain white Styrofoam-like spacing material.

 

By using roughly 2 parts soil to 1 part sphagnum moss, you can achieve a mix that holds moisture well and does not easily become compacted. This also serves as an ideal planting medium for many live plants…and Crested Geckos truly come into their own in complex, well-planted terrariums.

 

Sow Bugs

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Pudding4brains

I often establish colonies of sowbugs, millipedes, springtails and other leaf-litter invertebrates in terrariums with moist substrates; earthworms can also be used if temperatures are not too high. In addition to aerating the soil and consuming feces, dead leaves, and shed skin, sowbugs and others make healthful additions to the diets of many herps.

 

The Base Layer

Zoo Med Hydroballs, preferably but not necessarily covered by a layer of plastic screening, should be used as the base layer of your Crested Gecko terrarium. They are a bit more effective than the broken clay flower pots favored by us dinosaurs in assisting with drainage, preventing soil impaction, and maintaining high humidity levels.

 

Washable Terrarium Liners

Those seeking an extra measure of safety may wish to consider terrarium liners. Potted plants camouflaged with rocks or sphagnum moss can be used to create a naturalistic effect.

 

I’ll address the specifics of Crested Gecko care and breeding in the future; until then, please post any questions or observations below.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

New Caledonian Giant Gecko Care

Choosing the Best Substrates for Reptiles and Amphibians

Sailfin Dragon Care and Conservation: a Zookeeper’s Notes

H. pustulatus

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by MKFI

Sailfin Dragons (4 species in the genus Hydrosaurus) are among the most spectacular of all the world’s lizards. Even after a lifetime of working with reptiles in zoos and the field, the sight of one stops me cold – and I know of no herp enthusiast who reacts otherwise. While certainly not suitable for beginners, the experienced keeper with ample space will be hard pressed to find a more exciting prospect. And with a new species recently described, and wild populations of others in jeopardy, serious attention to captive breeding is urgently needed.

 

Description and Natural History

The Philippine Sailfin Lizard, Hydrosaurus pustulatus, was the species most commonly seen in the pet trade until the mid-1990’s, when exports were restricted. Stoutly built and sometimes nearing 4 feet in length, males are clad in green, neon purple, and reddish blue, and bear huge crests along the back and tail. DNA studies of individuals in Manila animal markets revealed that 2 genetically-distinct species are currently classified as H. pustulatus. The newly-described species has not yet been named. Please see the article linked below for further information.

 

Sailfin habitat

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Ramon FVelasquez

The Amboina Sailfin, H. amboinensis, native to Indonesia and New Guinea, now often appears in pet markets in the Philippines. Weber’s Sailfin Lizard, H. weberi, is limited in distribution to the Indonesian islands of Ternate and Halmahera.

 

Sailfin Dragons are found near water, frequenting forested river edges, swamps, and coastal marshes.

 

Behavior

Sailfin Dragons are alert and somewhat high-strung. Pets will flee from noises, cats, dogs, large birds and other threats. Injuries during such escape attempts are common. While some calm down and accept gentle handling, wild caught individuals may remain unapproachable for years.

 

Female

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Adrian Pingstone

Status in the Wild

A recent survey by University of Oklahoma herpetologists (Biological Conservation, V 169, Jan, 2014) revealed that only 10% of the Philippine Sailfin Dragon’s remaining habitat is protected. The rest is impacted by logging, coastal fisheries, illegal collection, and other activities.

 

The Terrarium

Sailfin Dragons forage on the ground but are otherwise arboreal. They will be stressed if kept in low enclosures that do not allow climbing opportunities.

 

Youngsters may be raised in 30-55 gallon aquariums. In common with Asian Water Dragons and Basilisks, they often run along the glass and are prone to snout and jaw abrasions. Cardboard or other solid borders along the lower 3-4 inches of the tank’s sides will help to limit such injuries.

 

Larger individuals must be housed in custom-made cages. A single adult will need a home measuring approximately 5 x 4 x 5 feet. More height – 6 feet or so – is ideal. In suitable climates, predator-proof outdoor enclosures, including pre-fabricated bird aviaries, can be fashioned into “luxury accommodations”.

 

H. amboinensis

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Cburnett

Numerous wide, stout branches and shelves should be provided. Sturdy live plants (Pothos, Philodendron, Spider Plants) and/or artificial plants should be added to provide a sense of security. Wild Sailfin Dragons always live near heavy cover, and will be ill-at-ease in bare terrariums. One or two sides of the enclosure should be solid as opposed to screened, again to place the animals at ease (this is standard in zoo exhibit construction – many animals fare poorly when open to view from all directions). Never position rocks below branches, as startled individuals may jump to the floor and be injured.

 

A water bowl large enough for bathing must be provided. Custom built cages with filtered pools are ideal.

 

Substrate

The substrate should be capable of holding moisture and soft enough to cushion falls when hungry or frightened Dragons leap to the ground. Cypress mulch is ideal; soft sphagnum moss can be added if falls are frequent. Avoid fine substrates such as peat and coconut husk, which tend to lodge around the eyes and jaws.

 

Light

Sailfin Dragons will not thrive without a source of UVB radiation. Natural sunlight is best, but be aware that glass and plastic filter out UVB rays, and that fatal overheating can occur very quickly. If a florescent bulb is used (the Zoo Med 10.0 UVB Bulb is ideal), be sure that all animals can bask within 6-12 inches of it. Mercury vapor bulbs broadcast UVB over greater distances, and provide beneficial UVA radiation as well. A 12:12 hour day-night cycle should be maintained.

 

Heat

The ambient air temperature should range from 80-90 F, with a basking spot of 110-120 F; night-time temperatures can dip to 75 F.  Incandescent bulbs should be used to maintain these temperatures. Provide your pets with the largest enclosure possible, so that a varied temperature gradient can be maintained. A ceramic heater or red/black reptile “night bulb” can be used after dark.

 

Humidity

Sailfin Dragons require humidity levels of approximately 80%, and the chance to dry off as well. The terrarium should be misted twice daily. Large bathing pools and reptile misters can be used to increase humidity.

 

Companions

Males are territorial and will fight savagely. Females often co-exist, but may also battle for dominance.

 

Crayfish

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Thomas Seip

Feeding

Sailfin Dragons need a varied diet. Those fed crickets and mealworms alone quickly develop serious developmental disorders. Whole vertebrates such as minnows, shiners, crayfish or small bait crabs, and pink mice represent the best means of meeting their high calcium requirements; use goldfishes only sparingly, as a steady diet has been implicated in health problems in other reptiles. Pink mice should be fed less often than fishes (once each 7-14 days), and furred rodents are best avoided.

 

Roaches, earthworms, crickets, butterworms, silkworms, super mealworms and other commercially-available insects, should be offered regularly. In order to increase dietary variety, try canned grasshoppers, snails and silkworms. Cicadas, beetles, grasshoppers, moths and other wild-caught insects should be provided as well; please see the article linked below for further information on safely collecting insects.

 

Young Sailfin Dragons are primarily carnivorous, but add greens and fruit to the diet as they mature. Captives, however, often reject non-living foods. Mixing live mealworms into a bowl of kale, dandelion, squash, carrot, mango, peaches and other produce may encourage them to sample the salad.

 

Depending upon the type of food, Sailfin Dragons can be fed daily, every-other-day or thrice weekly; young fare best when fed frequently. Food (other than vertebrates) should be powdered with Zoo Med ReptiCalcium or a similar product. Vitamin/mineral supplements such as ReptiVite should be used 2-3 times each week.

 

While ingested substrate is usually passed, food is best offered in bowls to limit potential problems.

 

Health Considerations (Pet Owner and Pet)

Salmonella bacteria, commonly present in reptile and amphibian digestive tracts, can cause severe illnesses in people. Handling an animal will not cause an infection, as the bacteria must be ingested. Salmonella infections are easy to avoid via the use of proper hygiene. Please speak with your family doctor concerning details, and feel free to write me for links to useful resources.

 

Unfortunately, captive breeding remains the exception rather than the rule. Wild-caught individuals will be afflicted with various parasites and should be seen by an experienced veterinarian shortly after acquisition.

 

Sailfin Dragons are prone to snout and jaw injuries that result from rubbing against glass and screening. Wounds may become infected, and should be treated immediately.

 

Fine/gritty substrate may lodge along the gums and in the eyes.

 

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable.

 

Further Reading

 New Sailfin Dragon Species Found in Pet Market

Feeding Insectivorous Lizards

 

Pet Lizards: Large, Small, and Colorful Insectivores

Rainbow Whiptail

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by DiverDave

The world’s astonishing lizard diversity – 5988 species have been described to date – is mirrored by the huge array of species now available to reptile enthusiasts. In recent years, refined husbandry and breeding techniques have introduced and re-introduced many fascinating lizards to the pet trade. Today I’d like to cover several that might interest folks with varying degrees of experience. I’ll review others in the future…until then, please post notes about your own favorites below, as those mentioned here are just a small sample.

 

Important Notes

A highly-varied diet is essential if you are to have success in keeping insectivorous lizards. Crickets and mealworms alone, even if powdered with supplements, are not an adequate diet for any species.

 

Always provide your lizards with the largest possible enclosure. Large terrariums will simplify the establishment of a thermal gradient (areas of different temperatures). Thermal gradients, critical to good health, allow lizards to regulate their body temperature by moving between hot and cooler areas.

 

Few diurnal (day-active) lizards will thrive without a source of UVB light.  If a florescent bulb is used (the Zoo Med 10.0 UVB Bulb is ideal), be sure that your pet can bask within 6-12 inches of it. Mercury vapor bulbs broadcast UVB over greater distances, and provide beneficial UVA radiation as well.

 

The following information is meant to provide an overview. Please post below for more detailed information.

 

Emerald Swift

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Charlesjsharp

Emerald Swift, Sceloporus malachiticus

Also known as the Green Spiny Lizard, mature males are breathtaking even by lizard standards. Note the Latin species name – malachite green, with a blue tint, best describes these beauties. Although many in the trade are wild-caught, captive births (they bear live young) are becoming more common. Emerald Swifts range from southern Mexico (Yucatan) through Central America to Panama, and are restricted to cloud forests and similar mountainous habitats.

 

Unfortunately, as with most habitat specialists, care can be somewhat complicated. Emerald Swift terrariums must be kept rather cool and humid (74-76 F, humidity 60-70%), but hot, dry areas (90 F) must also be available. As airflow is important to their health, the screen top should not be covered with plastic as a means of increasing humidity; rather, a reptile fogger, or frequent hand-misting, should be employed.

 

A pair might get by in a 30 gallon terrarium, but a 55 gallon, which will also support a second female, is preferable. Driftwood and rocks should be supplied for climbing and basking; all rocks should be placed on the tank’s floor, not on the substrate, so that tunneling lizards will not be crushed. UVB exposure is essential. A highly-varied diet comprised of well-fed, calcium and vitamin-supplemented roaches, crickets, butterworms, waxworms, calciworms, silkworms, hornworms and wild caught insects is critical for their long-term health. Like most related lizards, Emerald Swifts are high-strung and should be viewed as pets to observe rather than handle.

 

Long tailed Grass Lizard

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by B kimmel

Long Tailed Grass Lizard, Takydromus sexlineatus

This active, attractive lizard is also sold as the Asian Grass or Six Lined Grass Lizard. Originally available only as wild-caught imports, they have proven to be prolific breeders, with multiple clutches per year being common. Their huge natural range extends from India and China through most of Southeast Asia to Indonesia. Long toes and an extraordinarily-long tail (an individual with a 2.5 inch long body will sport an 8 inch tail!) enable these little acrobats to hunt in the “canopy” of their grassland home – a niche unavailable to other lizards.

 

Although small, Grass Lizards are very active. A trio should be provided a 20 long to 30 gallon terrarium. If given sufficient space and cover, a small group can be maintained together; success has also been reported in housing them with small geckos, treefrogs and anoles. The terrarium should be well-stocked with real and artificial plants and branches, as they are stressed in bare enclosures.   UVB exposure is essential, and a temperature gradient of 72-85 F, with a basking site of 90-95 F, should be established.  A diet comprised of as many insect species as possible must be supplied; crickets and mealworms alone are not adequate.

 

Sudan Plated Lizard

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Haplochromis

Sudan Plated Lizard, Gerrhosaurus (Broadleysaurus) major

This thickly-built lizard appears quite formidable, but it is actually calm in demeanor, and usually becomes a most responsive pet. Also a long-lived pet – a pair under my care at the Bronx Zoo was still actively-courting at age 25+. The “Sudan” part of this lizard’s name is misleading, for its enormous range extends from that country clear across the width of Africa, and south along the continent’s western coast to South Africa. “Plated” is, however, apt, as they sport very sturdy, thick scales. Sudan Plated Lizards favor semi-arid scrub, brushy savannas and lightly-wooded grasslands, and may also colonize parks and other developed areas.

 

Plated Lizards really come into their own in large enclosures, and should not be considered unless a cage of at least 4’ x 3’ x 3’ (and preferably larger) is available. Those I’ve kept in large zoo exhibits were doing something interesting all day long…the same cannot be said for the many poorly-housed specimens I’ve seen over the years. They prefer to bask on rocks, and are inveterate diggers. Be sure to place all rocks on the terrarium’s floor, not on the substrate, or a lizard may tunnel beneath one and be crushed. A deep layer of sand and gravel should cover the cage bottom; PVC tubes and similar shelters make great retreats. Plated Lizards do well at a temperature gradient of 76-88 F and with a basking site of 95F. Ample UVB exposure is essential.

 

Providing a varied diet to these ever-hungry lizards is a simple matter, as little will be refused. Mine relished the cicadas, crayfish and may beetles, along with all of the standard feeder insects. Interestingly, they also take earthworms, which are rejected by most arid-adapted lizards. An occasional pink mouse can be offered, but rely primarily upon supplements rather than vertebrates as a calcium source (wild individuals do take the occasional small lizard or snake, but they are mainly insectivorous). Fruit is accepted by many individuals, but they seem to do fine without it.

 

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

The Best Diets for Insect-Eating Lizards

 

How to Breed Swifts and Spiny Lizards

Monitor Lizard Ownership: Important Points to Consider

Lace monitors fighting

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by John Hill

Each of the many monitors under my care at zoos and in my own collection has left me with the feeling that they are somehow “more complicated” than other reptiles. Recent research into their breeding and hunting strategies bears this out…monitors do indeed appear to be the most advanced of all lizards. Pets often become unusually responsive to their owners, who sometimes ascribe mammal-like qualities to these fascinating reptiles.

 

Among the monitors we also find the world’s largest lizards, a fact which adds to their allure. But giants such as the Water, Lace, Crocodile and Nile Monitors are tough to manage even in zoos, and are suitable only for those few keepers with the knowledge, space, maturity and finances to meet their needs. More importantly, it must be understood that all monitors can inflict severe injuries…in fact, fatalities are a real possibility where young children or incapacitated adults are concerned. Today I’ll review some important points that, if considered beforehand, will greatly improve life for both monitor and monitor owner. As always, please be sure to post any questions or thoughts below.

 

Crocodile Monitor

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Greg5030

Safety

While monitors vary greatly in personality – some become rather docile, while others remain wary of people – all can be dangerous and must be treated with caution. They are certainly capable of learning from experience and altering their responses to people. My experiences in zoos with Crocodile and Water Monitors illustrated this very clearly to me (please see articles linked below). However, this should not lead us to “trust” them, or to treat a monitor, or any reptile, as though it were a well-trained dog. The following quote from legendary snake expert Bill Haast is generally applicable to any reptile: “You can have a snake for 30 years, but leave the cage open once, and it’s gone – and it won’t come back unless you have a mouse in your mouth”!

 

Large species such as Crocodile, Water, Lace and Nile Monitors (V. salvadorii, V. salvator, V. varius and V. niloticus) can be dangerously aggressive and are not suitable for most private collections. In the course of my work as the Bronx Zoo’s head mammal keeper, I helped restrain giraffes, bison, polar bears, rhinos and many other formidable beasts…but Water Monitors are, pound-for-pound, one of the strongest animals I’ve ever handled. Large monitors can inflict severe bites and scratches, which can lead to permanent injuries and life-threatening infections. Operating policies in most zoos require that 2 experienced keepers be present when monitor exhibits are entered.

 

Water Monitor

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Beijingbing

Space

Monitors are quite active, and languish in cramped enclosures. Also of concern is the fact small cages render it difficult to establish a temperature gradient (thermal gradients, critical to good health, allow reptiles to regulate their body temperature by moving between hot and cooler areas). Most species require very high basking temperatures, and if sufficient space is not provided, the entire cage will become over-heated due to the effects of the basking site.

 

The 6 to 7 foot-long Nile, Lace, Crocodile and Water Monitors require room-sized enclosures with drainable pools. Even moderately-sized species, such as the Rough-Necked Monitor (V. rudicollis), should be provided with a living space measuring 6’ x 6’ x 6’ or greater.

 

Expenses

The initial purchase price of your pet and the expenses involved in constructing a custom-built enclosure are only a small portion of the total cost involved in monitor ownership. Electricity use will be substantial, veterinary care is as or more expensive than for a dog, and food (mainly rats and, for some, whole fishes) continues to climb in price.

 

Veterinary Care

Reptile-experienced veterinarians are difficult to find in many regions, and not all will be willing or able to treat a large monitor. Trust me – it is a grave mistake to embark on monitor ownership before locating a veterinarian, or to imagine that even the hardiest of species will not require medical care. Please post below for a list of herp-experienced vets in your area.

 

Nile Monitor

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by A. C. Tatarinov

Time Commitment

While all reptiles require daily checks as to their condition, many require very little in the way of actual daily or even weekly work. Large monitors need a great deal of care, usually on a daily basis…think more in terms of an annoying puppy (sorry, dog-people!) with dangerous teeth and claws rather than a well-fed, oft-fasting Ball Python.

 

Remember also that monitors may live into their 20’s, and that the amount of work and degree of expertise they demand usually complicates the task of finding appropriate care while you are away from home.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

Monitor & Rhino Iguana Learning Abilities

 

Black Rough Neck Monitor Care

 

 

My Bearded Dragon is Not Eating: What to Do

Head and

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Aka

Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps) are among the most popular of all reptile pets and a great choice for both new and experienced lizard enthusiasts.  But apparently-healthy specimens sometimes refuse to feed, or lose weight despite feeding, and there is still much confusion as to why this occurs.  My work with Bearded Dragons and hundreds of other lizards in zoos and at home has (I hope!) provided me with some useful insights into this problem.  When presented with a non-feeding Bearded Dragon, we must check our husbandry protocol (UVB, temperature, etc.) and investigate the possibility of a disease or injury. Other potential problems, such as the effects of circadian rhythms (“internal clocks”), may be less obvious, yet very important.

Feeding

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Frankly Man

Is My Lizard Hibernating?

Hibernation (or brumation) is not the neat, tidy process I learned about as a child – there are varying degrees of dormancy. Depending upon where they live within the natural range, wild Bearded Dragons may experience severe winters, and will become dormant for several months each year. However, those in milder regions may remain active (please see the article linked below to read more about their natural history).

Pets sometimes cease feeding in the fall, despite being provided with 12-14 hours of daylight and high temperatures.  Although all Bearded Dragons in the US pet trade are several generations removed from the wild, the tendency to hibernate may persist.  “Internal clocks”, or circadian rhythms, can cause pets to become lethargic and refuse food during the winter.  To confuse matters further, some reptiles enter dormancy when winter arrives in their native habitats…even if it happens to be summertime in their present home!  I’ve seen this among captive Indian Gharials (fish-eating crocodiles) and other reptiles.

The Bearded Dragon Habitat

Bearded Dragons vary in their response to crowding.  Moving your pet to a larger terrarium may help, and this will also make it easier for you to establish a thermal gradient. Thermal gradients, which allow reptiles to move from hot to cool areas, are critical to good health. A 30 gallon long-style aquarium is the minimum size that should be considered for an adult…a 55 or larger is preferable.

Basking

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Greg5030

Inappropriate temperatures will cause your lizard to slow down its feeding, and will impair digestion. An incandescent spotlight bulb should be used to create a basking site of 100-110 F. The rest of the terrarium should be kept at a temperature range of 72-85 F.

 

Like all desert-dwelling diurnal lizards, Bearded Dragons require high UVB levels. If a florescent bulb is used (Zoo Med’s models are excellent), be sure that your pet can bask within the distance recommended by the manufacturer. Mercury vapor bulbs broadcast UVB over greater distances, and provide beneficial UVA radiation as well.

Beetle Grub

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by 99of9

Diet

Wild Bearded Dragons feed upon a huge array of plants, invertebrates, and the occasional small lizard, snake or rodent. A diet comprised only of crickets, mealworms and a simple salad will not support good health long term. Offering different types of insects can also incite new interest in feeding.  We see this most commonly in chameleons, but the enthusiasm your Bearded Dragons will show for novel foods will leave you with no doubt as to their value.

Please see the articles linked below to read more about adding silkworms, house flies, sow bugs, wild-caught insects and other important foods to your pet’s diet. Studies have shown that some lizards will alter their diet in accordance with changing nutritional needs…your pet’s poor appetite may indicate that more variety is needed.

Stress

While female Bearded Dragons usually co-exist, males are intolerant of other males and cannot be kept together. If you keep your lizards in a group, make certain that each is able to bask and to obtain enough to eat. Dominant animals can frighten others even without direct aggression…merely seeing a “bully” in another terrarium may be enough to inhibit an animal from feeding. Appetite-suppressing aggression is also common among young lizards that are being raised in groups.

 

Locating the terrarium in a noisy part of the house, or where there are vibrations from machinery, may also depress appetites and contribute to other health concerns.

 

t420Disease, Impactions and other Health Issues

An impaction from substrate (swallowed with meals) is one of the more common reasons that Bearded Dragons cease feeding. While many have been successfully kept on sand, others seem to have problems almost immediately. The exact type of substrate used, composition of the diet, calcium intake, hydration levels and many other factors likely play a role in explaining the differences we see. Washable terrarium liners are the safest substrate option.

 

Unfortunately, highly-contagious Atadenoviruses are well-established in US Bearded Dragon populations. These viruses are spread via body contact and improperly cleaned tools; afflicted females may also pass infections along to their young. Some of the illnesses they cause, including Wasting Disease and “Star Gazing”, are accompanied by a loss of appetite and/or weight. Please see the article linked below for further information.

Internal or external parasites, and a host of other less common ailments, should also be investigated if your pet stops eating, or if it feeds but continues to lose weight. Please post below if you need help in locating a reptile experienced veterinarian.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

 

Atadenovirus in Bearded Dragons

 

Hibernation in Bearded Dragons

 

Collecting Insects as Food for Reptiles

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