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Contains articles and advice on a wide variety of frog species. Answers and addresses questions on species husbandry, captive status, breeding, news and conservation issues concerning frogs.

Exciting New Exotic Animal Displays in our Reptile Room

In the Reptile Room section of our Lancaster, Pennsylvania retail store, our expert staff is always creating new and exciting displays.  These amazing displays rarely get the exposure they deserve – so we wanted to take a moment and highlight their extraordinary work on That Reptile Blog. Check them out below or stop by our store and see for yourself!

 

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Mantella Tank

This display features the unique Mantella frog (Mantella ebenaui) in a 40 gallon Marineland Perfecto aquarium.  The brown variety of this rare frog is native to Madagascar.  The landscape includes river rock gravel, topped with several live plants, including creeping fig, liverwort and begonia.  The staff has also included a mini water reservoir with several small goldfish.

 

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What makes this set up special, is that the tank is fully sustaining ecosystem that requires no filtration and little maintenance.  The system relies on the live plants and gold fish to digest nutrients created by the breakdown of uneaten food and waste.  The only maintenance required is feeding the Mantella and trimming back plants as needed.  This set up is maintained by several members of our staff, including Josh Mangan.

 

 

 

 IMG_0876Volcano Tank

This awesome “active” volcano was handcrafted by our Reptile Room associate Jesse Taylor.  The inventive design includes a Zoo Med Repti-Fogger surrounded by natural Eco Earth bedding.  The fogger releases a steamy mist that creates the appearance of volcanic activity.  Housed in an 18 in. x 18 in. x 24 in. Exo Terra Glass Terrarium, the ecosystem also includes an Eco Earth and live seasonal moss base, as it is prepared to hold African Reed Frogs.

 

 

IMG_0952Customized Blue Gliding Frog Terrarium

Created by Reptile Room supervisor Ryan Chillas, this great set up features two Vietnamese Blue Gliding Frogs.  To best replicate the natural environment of the frogs, Chillas created a detailed, natural set up that includes a water reservoir and waterfall.  He added a river rock base and several live plants, including creeping fig, liverwort and a peace lily.

To create the waterfall, Chillas borrowed some non-toxic expanding foam sealant from our pond section.  He used it to fashion a back wall that holds an Aquatop fountain pump.  The pump draws water from the bottom reservoir and moves it to the top of the foam wall.  Chillas also added petrified wood and rocks throughout the foam wall.  Adding live plants, it creates the perfect climbing environment that the arboreal Blue Gliding Frogs would find in their natural habitat.

 

If you’d like to check out these great displays, stop by our Reptile Room in our Lancaster, Pennsylvania store. In addition to these animals, we also have a large variety of lizards, tortoises and spiders to pique your curiosity.  You can check with Josh, Jesse or Ryan in person or speak with any of the members of our helpful expert staff.  We are always ready, willing and able to answer any questions you might have!

 

 

 

 

Endangered Species Notes: Missing Frogs Found, Others Feared Extinct

Indian Dancing Frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by SathyabhamaDasBiju

In 2010, 33 teams of researchers set out across 21 countries to search for the hundreds of amphibian species that may have been driven to extinction in recent years. A “100 Most Wanted” and a “10 Ten” list was compiled, and the public’s help was sought. Now, 4 years later, we have both discouraging and promising news, with some lost species “resurrected”, several new ones described, and no sign at all of many.

 

I’ve written about the global amphibian decline, spurred by an emerging disease (Chytrid fungus outbreak), habitat loss, and other factors, in several articles (please see Further Reading, below). The current search for survivors is also covered in the recently-published book In Search of Lost Frogs. Today I’d like to summarize recent reports from the field. Most of the good and bad news centers on frogs…the status of many salamanders, which are less well-studied and harder to find, remains unknown.

 

Painted Hula Frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Mickey Samuni-Blank

Down But Not Out

To start off on a positive note, I was happy to learn that 6 frog species that had not been seen in over 20 years were found in a single week of searching on Haiti! Hopefully, surveys of other habitats that have been studied in recent years will turn out as well.

 

Several species on the “Most Wanted List”, all feared extinct, have also been found. Included among these are:

 

Ecuador’s Rio Pescado Stubfoot Toad, formerly known only from drawings.

The Borneo Rainbow Toad, which had not been seen in 87 years.

Israel’s Hula Painted Frog, which was pushed to near-extinction by marsh drainage and introduced fish.

Newly-Discovered Species

Happily, a number of species new to science turned up during the worldwide search, and in conjunction with related efforts. While many are tiny and are noted only by frog enthusiasts, several have, for various reasons, also aroused some public interest:

Named due to its (perceived!) resemblance to a character on The Simpsons TV show, the Monty Burns Toad had been hidden away in Columbia. Another surprise, a neon-orange Dart Poison Frog found in Panama, measures only 12.7 mm in length – the smallest among a huge array of tiny relatives.

Display of male Dancing Frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by SathyabhamaDasBiju

My favorites are the 14 species of Dancing Frogs recently found in India’s forests. Because they live near rushing streams that would drown out mating calls, the tiny males have evolved an alternative way of attracting mates. True to their name, they whip their rear legs about in a variety of “dance-like” moves (please see photo).

 

Still Missing

Unfortunately, many species remain undetected. Some, such as the Mesopotamic Beaked Toad, have not been found despite extensive surveys. Others that are hopefully skilled at avoiding herpetologists rather than gone forever include:

 

Olm

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Arne Hodalič

Fantastically colored in greenish-yellow and jet black, the bromeliad-dwelling Jackson’s Climbing Salamander has not been observed in its native Guatemala since 1975.

 

Turkestanian Salamander: Known only from two specimens collected in Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan or Tajikistan, this salamander has not been seen since its discovery in 1909.

 

Golden Toad: This brilliantly colored Costa Rican native, despite inhabiting isolated, pristine cloud forests, has been missing since 1989.

 

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

Public Help Needed in Amphibian Search

Rare but Unprotected US Amphibians

US Reptiles and Amphibians Need Hobbyist’s Help

Frog Research May Help Patients Avoid Muscle Loss

Striped Burrowing Frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by LiquidGhoul

An Australian frog that copes with droughts by entering a hibernation-like state known as aestivation is now the focus of important bio-medical research. Despite being immobile for months at a time, the Striped Burrowing Frog (Cyclorana alboguttata) suffers little of the muscle loss seen in immobile people, and in astronauts who spend long periods at reduced gravity. Two related frog species that I was lucky enough to acquire many years ago were also able to weather months without water, and in many ways seemed to be the ecological equivalent of another favorite of mine, the African Bullfrog.

 

The “African Bullfrogs of Australia”

The 13 squat, large-mouthed frogs in the genus Cyclorana are restricted to Australia, where many inhabit drought-prone regions that are inhospitable to other amphibians. Although classified with treefrogs in the family Hylidae, these odd beasts are about as far-removed from typical treefrogs as can be imagined – in fact, likely never see trees, considering where they live!

 

New Holland Frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Poleta33

The two species that I’ve kept, the Water Holding Frog (C. platycephala) and the New Holland Frog (C. novaehollandiae), looked and acted like mini-African Bullfrogs. Capable of taking enormous meals (including same-sized tank-mates), they grew almost before my eyes. In the wild, most breed in temporary pools whenever it rains, eat like mad, store water in the bladder, and then disappear below ground. If the dry period is prolonged, a cocoon of shed skin will be formed about the body.

 

Muscle-Protecting Genes Discovered

The Striped Burrowing Frog has often been used as a model in studies seeking to slow or reverse muscle wasting in immobile people. Related studies have revealed that the loss of muscle tissue that occurs when we are unable to move is caused by protein-degrading molecules known as Reactive Oxygen Species.

 

Water Holding Frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by PurpleHz

Now, researchers at the University of Queensland have isolated a specific gene that seems to protect this frog’s muscle cells from damage during long periods of inactivity. As the gene, aptly named Survivin, is also found in humans, lessons learned by studying the frog could possibly be of benefit to us as well.

 

Another gene that may help to avoid muscle loss has also been identified. Known as Checkpoint Kinase 1, this gene regulates cell division and DNA repair. Researchers are also investigating the possibility that Striped Burrowing Frog muscles are assisted by high levels of protective antioxidants.

 

Applying these findings to human patients seems to be a long way off, but the research hold promise. In fact, similar muscle-protecting mechanisms have been found to be at work in hibernating mammals such as squirrels, which are a bit closer to us on the evolutionary scale.

 

I’ll pass along updates as they become available…please also share anything related that you may learn by posting below, thanks.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

 

The Most Bizarre New Frogs

 

Amphibian learning Abilities (Toad Meets Bee)

 

Frog Facts: First Discovery of Egg Care by a Southeast Asian Treefrog

C. vittatus

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Andy king50

The breeding habits of a poorly-studied treefrog have recently grabbed the attention of herpetologists and amphibian enthusiasts. Although it is small in size and lacks a common name, Chiromantis hansenae is quite special. Recent research has revealed it to be the only Southeast Asian treefrog known to provide parental care to its eggs. Furthermore, it breaks the typical rules that apply to most other egg-guarding frogs in important ways. Very little is known about Chiromantis hansenae, which until now was thought to be an “un-remarkable” little frog – a clear sign that important discoveries await those willing to search.

 

Eggs Die Without Mom’s Care

Chiromantis hansenae’s unexpected egg-brooding behavior was first observed by researchers from the National University of Singapore. Writing in the journal Ethology (V. 119, N. 8, p 671-679), they describe how females deposit egg masses in trees and then cover the eggs with their bodies. Egg-attending treefrogs sometimes descend to the ground and soak for a time in nearby ponds, after which they return and re-position themselves above the eggs. This behavior apparently supplies the eggs with water and also limits the amount of water lost via evaporation…most of the egg masses from which females were removed (by researchers) dried up and failed to hatch.

 

Midwife Toad with eggs

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Fice

Chiromantis hansenae differs from most other egg-brooding frogs in several important ways. In other species, few large eggs are produced, and the male provides most or all of the parental care (please see photo of male Midwife Toad carrying eggs).  Such eggs are generally deposited on land, and direct development (from egg to small frog) is typical. Chiromantis hansenae, by contrast, produces many tiny eggs and deposits them above-ground, and tadpoles rather than small frogs emerge from the eggs.

 

Conservation Implications

Why has this unique breeding strategy evolved, and how many other species rely upon it? Answering such questions is crucial if we are to understand and conserve the world’s frogs, many of which are facing an extinction crisis.

 

That such a small, unassuming frog could hold these secrets should inspire us to look at all creatures with deep respect and interest. One never knows where the next unforeseen discovery will arise, or how important it will be from a conservation perspective. Despite Southeast Asia’s incredible diversity of amphibians, the study mentioned above is the first to closely examine parental care in any of the region’s frogs.

 

Unfortunately, little is known of Chiromantis hansenae’s natural history; the range, usually given as Thailand and Cambodia, is poorly-defined. The IUCN lists this frog as “data deficient”, and some herpetologists doubt that it is a distinct species, classifying it instead as the widely-ranging C. vittatus (note: the first photo, above, is of C. vittatus; you can see a video clip of C. hansenae here ).

 

Chinese Flying Frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Dger

Related Frogs

Chiromantis hansenae is classified in the family Rhacophoridae, along with several treefrogs that are popularly-kept in captivity by amphibian enthusiasts. Included among them are two of my personal favorites, the Chinese Flying Frog (Rhacophorus dennysi, please see photo) and the African Gray Foam Nest Frog (Chiromantis xerampelina).

 

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

 

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

Tree Dwelling, Wood-Eating tadpoles Discovered!

 

The Fang-bearing Tadpoles of the Vampire Frog

 

 

Pet Frogs and Toads: Five Points to Consider Before Buying

Budgett's Frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Rosarinagazo

We amphibian enthusiasts are a lucky bunch. The world is populated by 6,389 frog and toad species, and new ones are discovered regularly. Among them we find frogs that have sheathed claws, lack lungs and defend their young from lions, along with toads that breed in salt marshes and bear live young. Some tadpoles feed upon their fathers’ skins, while others munch bark from tree branches…and that’s the mere tip of the iceberg! Frogs may be hardy survivors that can reach age 20, 30 or even 50, or be nearly impossible to keep alive in captivity. The following points, drawn from a lifetime of working with frogs and toads in the Bronx Zoo and at home, are useful to consider before embarking on your amphibian-keeping venture.

 

Note: The terms “frog” and “toad” do not always correspond with taxonomic relationships. All toads may be correctly called “frogs”. I’ll use “frogs” when referring to both.

 

Pine Barren's Treefrog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Lonerockalex

Please post below if you have specific questions, or would like a link to an article on a certain species.

 

Pet Frogs are “Hands-Off”

Cane Toads, White’s Treefrogs and many others are often very responsive to their owners, and will readily feed from the hand (or, for the “tooth” bearing African Bullfrog and Horned Frogs, from tongs!). However, they should be picked-up only when necessary, and then with wet hands. All amphibians have extremely delicate skin, and even microscopic tears will allow harmful bacteria to enter and cause havoc. Also, the skin’s mucus covering, which has anti-microbial properties, is easily removed even during gentle handling.

 

Well-cared-for frogs will reward you by exhibiting fascinating behaviors…but not if you disturb or injure them with unnecessary handling!

 

Blue Poison Frog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Wildfeuer,

Frogs Need Clean Terrariums and Excellent Water Quality

An African Bullfrog can eat baby cobras, survive 9 months without food and live for over 50 years. Yet 2-3 days of soaking in a fouled water bowl can end its live.

 

Frogs absorb water through the skin, and along with that water comes any associated pollutants. The most common of these is ammonia, which is excreted with the waste products. Most frogs are as or even more delicate than tropical fishes, since they absorb water over a greater surface area; ammonia test kits, partial water changes and strong filtration are critical to success in keeping them. Substrate needs the same attention as does water, since Horned Frogs and other land-dwellers can be poisoned by ammonia-soaked moss or soil.

 

Snowy tree cricket

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by PaulT

Frogs Need a Highly-Varied Diet

No frog will thrive long-term on a diet comprised solely of crickets and mealworms, even if these foods are powdered with supplements. I’ve done well by relying heavily upon wild-caught invertebrates during the warmer months.  Moths, beetles, grasshoppers, tree crickets, harvestmen, earwigs, “smooth” caterpillars and a variety of others are accepted – usually far more enthusiastically than are crickets!. Please see these articles for tips on collecting insects.

 

Useful invertebrates that you can buy include earthworms, roaches, butterworms, calciworms, silkworms, hornworms and sow bugs.  Feeders should be provided a healthful diet before use.  Canned grasshoppers, snails, and silkworms may be offered via feeding tongs. Please see the article linked below for further information on dietary variety.

 

Frogs are Easily Stressed…but it’s Hard to Tell

Stress is one of the most important and misunderstood concepts in herp husbandry. While some frogs will leap away when threatened, many instinctively freeze. Inexperienced owners often misinterpret the lack of vigorous protest as an “acceptance” of handling. However, be assured that your pet’s stress hormones are surging, and that this will have a deleterious effect on its immune system.

 

Being relatively inactive, many frogs may seem blissfully unaware of terrarium size, or of what is going on outside their enclosures. However, most are quite alert, and miss nothing. It may be difficult for us to detect a problem merely by observing our pets’ behaviors.

 

Certain species, such as White’s Treefrogs, American or Southern Toads, and African Clawed Frogs, are better-suited to busy households than are most.

 

Indian Bullfrog

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Amada44

The “It Doesn’t Do Anything” Factor

Ideally, the new frog owner will be interested in her or his pet for its own sake. But most of us also wish to see how it lives, what it does, and so on. Many frogs are about as active as the infamous “pet rock”…and are nocturnal to boot!

 

If you favor an active pet, consider a small diurnal species that forages for rather than ambushes its food, and keep it in a large, naturalistic terrarium. Five Blue Dart Poison Frogs (active hunters) in a well-planted 30 gallon tank will provide you with infinitely more to observe than will an Argentine Horned Frog (ambush predator) kept in the same-sized enclosure. African Clawed and Dwarf African Clawed Frogs also tend to be quite active, especially if housed in planted aquariums and not over-fed. Allowing sow bugs, springtails and other food species to become established in the terrarium will encourage activity.

 

Some species that tend to be active at night may adjust to daytime schedules once they settle into to their new homes. American Toads and their relatives are especially accommodating in this regards. Others, such as Green and Gold Bell Frogs, American Bullfrogs and Leopard Frogs, are ready and willing to feed round-the-clock. Red night-viewing bulbs will greatly increase your ability to observe Red-Eyed Treefrogs, Spadefoot Toads and other strictly nocturnal species.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio. I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable. I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

 

Nutritious Diets for Frogs and Toads

Toad Care: Common and Unusual Species

 

 

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