Home | Breeding | Corn Snake Notes: History, Breeding Preparations, Color Phases – Part 1

Corn Snake Notes: History, Breeding Preparations, Color Phases – Part 1

The books Snakes: the Keeper and the Kept and Snakes and Snake Hunting, written by Staten Island Zoo curator Carl Kauffeld, turned “Okeetee, South Carolina” into a household name for legions of snake enthusiasts worldwide (myself included). An incredibly productive snake collecting area, Okeetee was especially noted for its brilliantly colored corn snakes, Elaphe (Pantherophis) guttata, and abundant Eastern diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamanteus). A road sign from the area still graces the corn snake exhibit at the Bronx Zoo, where I worked for many years, and photographs taken from collecting trips to Okeetee in the 60’s and 70’s line the back rooms of the zoo’s 100 year old reptile house.

The Influence of Okeetee

These “Okeetee corns”, as they became known, were largely responsible for the explosion of interest in captive snake breeding in the late 60’s and 70’s, and ushered in a new age of husbandry innovations; today the corn snake remains the world’s most commonly bred snake species. Corn snakes have provided untold numbers of aspiring herpetologists with an introduction to snake keeping and snake breeding, and have played an important role in a number of research efforts.

Preparing Snakes for the Breeding Season

For those of you who plan to breed corn snakes, now (late summer) is the time to begin preparations. Your snakes should be fed heavily until autumn, at which time they can be chilled to 50-59 F (after a 2 week fast) for 6-8 weeks. Although corn snakes may reproduce at the tender age of 11 months, breeding should be withheld until they are at least 2 years of age…females that are bred too early often fail to attain full size, and tend to produce small clutches and weak offspring.

Mating occurs from March to June in most regions, with the eggs being laid 25-50 days thereafter. A second clutch may be produced in late summer/early fall. An average clutch consists of 16 eggs, but may range from 6-26. At 82 F, incubation time averages 62 days in length, and the young are 8-11 inches long upon hatching.

As we will see in Part II of this article, years of intense captive breeding efforts have produced a mind-boggling array of corn snake morphs, strains and hybrids. The reproductive cycle of all parallels that just described, but individual details, such as clutch size, etc., will vary among the various types of corn snakes.


Further Reading

The Southwestern Center for Herpetological Research has posted some informative notes and blog entries concerning the influence that Carl Kauffeld and Okeetee, SC have had on the snake-keeping community:

The care of corn snakes roughly parallels that of black rat snakes. Please see my article The Captive Care of Black Ratsnakes for more information.


  1. avatar

    are the okeetee and the miami phase the same thing

    • avatar

      Hello Jeff, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Thanks for your interest in our blog.

      In the wild, corn snakes vary widely in color throughout their range. The “Okeetee phase” refers to a naturally occurring population first made famous by snake legend Carl Kauffeld in his classic books “Snakes and Snake Hunting” and “Snakes, the Keeper and the Kept. The grounds of the Okeetee Hunt Club in South Carolina were his favorite collecting area; the corn snakes there, and in surrounding areas, have the typical color pattern of the Eastern subspecies, but the orange areas are extremely bright. They look like “designer” snakes, but the color is natural. Okeetee was also known for its huge diamondback rattlesnakes, and for the abundance of many other native herps. As a boy, I was lucky enough o live near the Staten Island Zoo, where Carl Kauffeld was curator and, while I dared not speak to the man, I was lucky enough to see several beautiful corn snakes that he had collected.

      “Miami phase” refers to corn snakes from south Florida that, in their natural state, sport red-orange blotches on a gray background.

      Decades of intense captive breeding has altered the appearance of snakes of these strains, in some cases intensifying the colors, in others changing the blotch size, etc. It may be hard to distinguish one from the other, but responsible breeders will send you photos if you re interested in their stock. Wild specimens retain their original characteristics, but collecting is regulated in most areas.

      Good luck and please keep me posted.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  2. avatar


    • avatar

      Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Thanks for your interest in our blog. It is not a good idea to mix garter and corn snakes; corns prefer rodents, but have been known to consume other snakes. Also, the requirements of garter snakes, in term of their habitat, diet and general care, are different
      than those of corn snakes. Please see this article on Garter Snake Care and Natural History for details, and please write back if you need further information.

      Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

About Frank Indiviglio

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Being born with a deep interest in animals might seem unfortunate for a native Bronxite , but my family encouraged my interest and the menagerie that sprung from it. Jobs with pet stores and importers had me caring for a fantastic assortment of reptiles and amphibians. After a detour as a lawyer, I was hired as a Bronx Zoo animal keeper and was soon caring for gharials, goliath frogs, king cobras and everything in-between. Research has taken me in pursuit of anacondas, Orinoco crocodiles and other animals in locales ranging from Venezuela’s llanos to Tortuguero’s beaches. Now, after 20+ years with the Bronx Zoo, I am a consultant for several zoos and museums. I have spent time in Japan, and often exchange ideas with zoologists there. I have written books on salamanders, geckos and other “herps”, discussed reptile-keeping on television and presented papers at conferences. A Master’s Degree in biology has led to teaching opportunities. My work puts me in contact with thousands of hobbyists keeping an array of pets. Without fail, I have learned much from them and hope, dear readers, that you will be generous in sharing your thoughts on this blog and web site. For a complete biography of my experience click here.
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