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Feeding ReptoMin Select-A-Food to Aquatic Frogs, Turtles, Newts, Tadpoles and Shrimp

Select a foodHello, Frank Indiviglio here.  ReptoMin Floating Food sticks have long been recognized as a valuable dietary staple for many aquatic reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates, and are used in zoos and private collections worldwide.  A new version, ReptoMin Select-A-Food, contains the original food sticks as well as freeze dried plankton and shrimp.  The size of the individual food items is geared towards smaller creatures, and each ingredient is housed in its own compartment, allowing for careful control of your pet’s food intake.

My Experience

ReptoMin Food Sticks are unique in that they form a nearly complete diet for quite a few species…the addition of freeze dried invertebrates increases the product’s value immensely.  I have used Reptomin Foods Sticks while caring for herps in the Bronx Zoo’s collection, as well as for my own pets, since its introduction, and most other professional zookeepers do the same.  Following is a brief summary of those species for which I have used it as a major component of the diet.

Amphibians

50-75% of the diet of African clawed frogs (several species) and of fire-bellied, red-spotted, California, ribbed, alpine and crested newts, among others.

80-90% of the diet of Mexican axolotls and of larvae over 1 month old.

50-75% of the diets of the larvae of numerous salamanders, including spotted, marbled, tiger and fire salamanders.

50-75% of the diets of numerous tadpoles, including American and African bullfrogs, green frogs, edible frogs, American toads, Wallace’s flying frogs, Australian bell frogs and horned frogs (several species).

Turtles

Except for live food specialists such as the mata mata, nearly every aquatic and semi-aquatic turtle relishes ReptoMin and freeze dried shrimp.  Due to the high calcium needs of growing turtles, I tend to supplement their diets quite frequently with whole fishes and crayfish as well.  I vary the percentage of ReptoMin with the species and situation, but usually rely upon it heavily.

I have used ReptoMin for 50-75% of the diets of hatchling red-eared sliders and snapping turtles, and 30-40% of the diets of spotted, painted, musk, Asian box, Bornean pond and many other turtle species.

Invertebrates

Reptomin is eagerly accepted by crayfishes, fresh water shrimp and most aquatic snails, as well as a number of terrestrial invertebrates – millipedes, roaches, snails, crickets and sow bugs.

Larger Animals

For those pets that require larger food items as they grow (i.e. the huge African clawed frog pictured here) you can offer the same basic nutrients by switching from Select-A-Food to a combination of ReptoMin Food Sticks, ReptoTreat Suprema Food Sticks (krill)  and ReptoTreat Gammarus Shrimp

Further Reading

For a look at another very useful food item for aquatic animals, please see my article Zoo Med’s Canned Shrimp .

Please write in and tell me about your own experiences with ReptoMin and other such foods.   Thanks, until next time, Frank Indiviglio.

42 comments

  1. avatar

    Been using reptomin with my hatchling snapper as of late he has really taken to it. Prior to his interest in it I used to put it in with the feeder mealworms as to gutload all those vitamins. Worms would gooble it up.

    Thanks for sharing.

  2. avatar

    Hello John, Frank Indiviglio here. Thanks for the great tip.

    Feeding Reptomin to mealworms is a great idea, and especially useful, as you point out, as regards turtles who will not accept it outright and for frogs, salamanders and lizards that take live food only. Crickets, most roaches and sowbugs eat it as well.

    I have been in the habit of using Tetramin Fish Food Flakes as a feeder insect diet, and have used Reptomin and cichlid pellets from time to time as well. Certainly Reptomin makes a great deal of sense as an insect food, and deserves more recognition in that role. I will pass along your thoughts in a posting within the next week or so.

    Thanks again, enjoy your turtles and please keep me posted,

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  3. avatar

    I have a 26 year-old African water frog that I got as a tadpole (Grow-A-Frog).
    We’ve fed it Reptomin pellets the whole time. We think he’s blind and has a bumbier body than he used to, but he still likes to eat and seems okay.
    Is it unsual for this kind of frog to live this long?

  4. avatar

    Hello Lauren, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks so much for the most interesting information. You have the 3rd eldest African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) on record on your hands…congratulations! The published longevity for this species is 30 years, with another record of 27 years…both animals were in zoo collections. A female clawed frog in my collection reached 21 years of age, and reproduced at age 18.

    Your story is particularly impressive because you’ve had the frog since it was a tadpole. Even in zoos, captive raised tadpoles sometimes fare poorly once they transform.

    Did the frog receive any food other than Reptomin? Yours is the longest-running account I have, so your input would be greatly appreciated and will be of value to others.

    There may be some problems with 1 item forming 100% of the diet, but I wouldn’t advise any changes at this point. Blindness should not hinder the frog at all…unlike most frogs, this species finds its food mainly by scent and via the lateral line organs (small white sensory organs, resembling stitches, along the frog’s sides). They are also unique among frogs in lacking tongues.

    African clawed frogs are among the longest-lived of all frogs. Specimens living in the wild, under less-than-ideal conditions (feral animals in underground water tanks in a castle in England, of all places!) have reached at least 17 years of age. In captivity, only certain toads (30 years) and the African bullfrog (a possible 50 year old individual in a snake park in Nairobi) have outlived them. But certainly your pet has a good chance of setting a new record!

    If you’d care to read about some unusual behaviors that I’ve observed among captive clawed frogs, please check out my article African Clawed Frog Behavior…your thoughts on it would be most appreciated.

    Thanks again for reporting in…Enjoy, good luck and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  5. avatar

    Yes, we have only been feeding it Reptomin. We won’t change the diet, but what other foods might a frog like/need?

    So I have the oldest non-zoo collection African clawed frog on record? Wow. I wonder if anyone would want to analyze it?

  6. avatar

    Hello Lauren, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks for the feedback; I’ll keep the information handy for the future. That’s quite a record you have there. Amphibian longevity records have not been kept (at least on the former, worldwide basis) for several years now…the project was the work of 1 individual, Frank Slavens. He has opted out for awhile, but there is interest in starting it up again. When that happens, I’ll be sure to submit your information.

    African clawed frogs can also be fed live blackworms, small live crickets (stick with ½ grown insects for your animal) and small earthworms. As for prepared foods, they readily accept Repto Treat Gammarus Shrimp (freeze dried shrimp) and canned freshwater shrimp. They favor small whole fish as well, but I would not feed vertebrates to your specimen, as digesting bone puts quite a strain on the system. Please be sure to introduce new foods slowly and in very small amounts.

    Good luck and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  7. avatar

    I have tried to feed my 2 Red eared slider hatchlings repto sticks and hatchling pellets and all sorts of prepared turtle foods with no luck – they love frozen blood worms and will eat a few freeze dried krill and they enjoyed the canned shrimp but they will eat NO pellets/sticks or prepared foods. I am concerned they are not getting a balanced diet. They are only 6 mo old and about an inch. Any suggestions on improvong their diet?

  8. avatar

    Hello Julie, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks for your interest in our blog.

    You might try “scenting” the pellets with the canned shrimp by rubbing the shrimp on the pellets, and feeding both items together; gradually reduce the amount of shrimp as time goes on. Keeping the turtles hungry for awhile will not do any harm and usually helps as well. In the meantime, use krill/canned shrimp as the basis of their diet, and save the bloodworms for future treats.

    Good luck and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  9. avatar

    My son got two “grow a frog” tadpoles in the mail while in first grade and he is now 25 yrs old. These frogs are 19yrs old, and have been in my care since my son’s departure for college. I was wondering if we had the oldest frogs, but now I know we have a ways to go. One is female and the other is a male. Even though the male has grabbed onto the female there has been no evidence of egg laying. You say your female didn’t reproduce until she was 18 yrs? These frogs have also been raised on a Reptomin pellets. Once we fed them guppies, but that grossed me out, so went back to the pellets. Our old declawed cat loved drinking the frog water from their open glass goldfish bowl, but we had to switch to a covered plastic tank since getting a younger frisky cat with claws. It is not as pretty as the glass bowl, however it is the only safe option I came up with. They are so dirty, is there a filtered sytem that would be good? I also feel that both of these frogs have been blind for a few years now. It cracks me up how they stuff food in their mouth with their hands.

  10. avatar

    Hello Jeanie, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks so much for writing in; that’s quite a story. Looks like you are on your way to a record!

    African clawed frogs can breed by age 1 year, sometimes earlier; the one I mentioned was still reproductively active at 18…sorry if I was unclear. They may sometimes be stimulated to breed as follows:

    Keep the frogs in water that is ½ to ¾ less in depth than usual (the reduced volume will concentrate ammonia, so be sure to filter well or change often) for 2 weeks. Then fill the tank to the top with water that is 5-10 F cooler than the water in which they have been living (this simulates a mini “wet/dry” season). Remove the parents right away if they lay eggs, as they like nothing better than frog eggs for dinner!

    Yes, you should by all means filter the water and perform weekly partial water changes. A submersible filter or corner filter will suffice. Just be sure that it is not so strong that the frogs are moved about by the outflow…please write in and let me know your tank size if you’d like suggestions re specific filter models and water change frequencies.
    Blindness should not occur with age; the fact that both may be blind leads me to believe that high ammonia levels are involved. Ammonia is colorless but is excreted in large quantities along with other waste products. High levels can cause blindness, skin lesions and death. Water changes and good filtration will address this. You can use instant ammonia test strips to check.

    Enjoy, good luck and please keep me posted. I hope you break the longevity record in time!

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  11. avatar

    my female red eared slider will not eat reptomin at all

  12. avatar

    Hello Lola, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks for your interest in our blog.

    It’s very common for adults turtles (I’m assuming yours is an adult, since you can determine the sex) to refuse new foods. Pets usually get far more food than they need – keeping your turtle hungry for awhile might tempt her to try Reptomin. You can also mix it in with another favored floating food – in her haste to eat, she may accidently grab some Reptomin.

    Reptomin is a fine food but not critical if you are providing your turtle with a balanced diet – please feel free to write in with specifics if you feel that might be useful.

    Good luck and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  13. avatar

    i dont know if this blog is still active but i just got an american bufo toad ,and its a little one (about an inch maby inch and a half) I bought it reptomin and it dosn’t seem to eat them ,but my cousin gave me a few dried mealworms he feeds to his frog and my toad ate those fine. I was also thinking of feeding it earth worms do you think they would eat the reptomin so my toad still would get the reptomin nutrients?

  14. avatar

    Hello Jay, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks for your interest in our blog. Aquatic frogs and newts will take non-living foods such as reptomin, but American toads and similar species need to see movement (the Marine Toad/Cane Toad is an exception; I’ve observed them eating dog food!).

    Feeding moist Reptomin to earthworms is a great idea, crickets will take it as well. I often provide it and fish food flakes to my feeder inverts. Earthworms can form the bulk of your toad’s diet; avoid mealworms as they have been linked to intestinal blockages if fed too frequently. Newly-molted (white in color) mealworms are fine.

    You might enjoy these articles on American Toad Care and Raising Earthworms.

    Keep up the creative thinking…we need more of that in our field; please let me know how all goes…

    Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  15. avatar

    Thank you for the information Frank im considering breeding earthworms now how many would you suggest I start with seeing as I only have one toad and its so small now also I heard that when toads get to adulthood they can eat pinkie mice is that true and is it good for the toad and if so how often should a toad eat them

  16. avatar

    Hello Jay, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Nice to hear from you again. How many worms you’ll need really depends upon the space you have available. Each individual worm has both male and female parts, so any 2 can mate, and they produce hundreds of eggs at a time. You can always give away or release extras.

    American toads should not be given pinkie; they are adapted to consume and digest invertebrates only. Some very large species, such as the Marine Toad and American Bullfrog will take an occasional small rodent in the wild (stomach content studies show this is quite rare, however), but even they do better with fish and crayfish as a calcium source. Veterinarians with whom I worked at the Bronx Zoo have identified eye, liver and kidney problems in insectivorous herps that were regularly fed pinkies (tiger salamanders, White’s Treefrog, Basilisk, etc.). Provide your toad with as much variety as possible, with earthworms as the basis of the diet, and use vitamin/mineral supplements. Please check out this article for more info on raising toads and please write back with any questions or observations of your own.

    Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  17. avatar

    Hello again Frank Last night my toad went into shock i think its because i had it upstairs where the central air is when i put it into its water dish it froze up so i thought it was dead so i made it a casket and dug a shallow grave for it but when i woke up i dug it up out of hope and it was alive but its moving slower (i think it hardly moved earlier lol) do you think its going to be alright i moved it back to my room in the basement thats always 65 to 80 degrees F

  18. avatar

    Hello Jay, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks …very interesting! Good thing you checked; actually many amphibians and reptiles have a natural “antifreeze” that prevents cell damage. Researchers are studying this in hopes of finding a way to preserve human organs for future transplant (as of now, transplants must be done quickly). Painted turtles, gray treefrogs, wood frogs and some others can be frozen into a block of ice, if this occurs at a certain rate, and can then thaw out with no ill effects…how “frozen” was your toad?

    One possible problem may be infections/parasites that were present but kept in check by the immune system; these sometimes worsen when the system becomes depressed by cold, even during normal hibernation. Keep an eye on the toad for tissue damage as well (black toes, etc.), but hopefully all will go well.

    Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  19. avatar

    by frozen i meant the second he hit the water he went stiffstopped moving and was like that for a good 30 mins or so before i decide to bury it

  20. avatar

    Hello Jay, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks for the feedback. I imagine that American toads may be less resilient that the species I mentioned earlier; I believe that they usually hibernate below the frost line. I’ve found grey treefrogs hibernating beneath a mere 2 inches of leaf litter in NYC; I once monitored 2 that seemed to be frozen solid, but both thawed out and hopped off in March.

    Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  21. avatar

    is it ok to use pine bedding for my toad

  22. avatar

    Hello Jay, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Pine can irritate amphibian skin and the chips are difficult to pass if swallowed. Sphagnum moss and sheet moss work very well, as does leaf mulch; topsoil covered by leaf litter is another possibility.

    Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  23. avatar

    Hey,

    I just wanted to report, I received my grow a frog for my 6th birthday, this February I will be turning 29. 23 years old, we still feed it Reptomin, its still small in size but doesnt seem to be going anywhere anytime soon, still healthy, filled with personality and can move quite fast when its feeding time

  24. avatar

    Hello Daniel, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks so much for writing in…wonderful to hear, especially as so many people buy them as an “addition” to tropical fish tanks and fail to meet their needs. The published longevity for African Clawed Frogs is 30 years, so you’re well on your way to a record!

    Glad to have you’re confirmation of Reptomin as a good diet, much appreciated.

    It is most likely a male, as females reach 5-6 inches in length and are quite stout.

    Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  25. avatar

    i have four albino african clawed frogs and wonder just how much Reptomin pellets i should put in there tank daily?
    there are two males and two females,
    i would hate to think im given them to much or two little food, can you help please?

  26. avatar

    Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks for your interest. Please let me know what temperature they are kept at, as this will influence growth and digestion; also their size, or ages if known.

    No need to be too concerned, however… African Clawed frogs are quite adaptable and seem to adjust their metabolisms to food availability. I know of several stunted individuals that began growing normally once put into larger quarters and given a better diet – even after years of no growth at all. But best to feed them properly, so please send the info above and I’ll get back to you.

    Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  27. avatar

    I’m trying reptoMin for the first time and my turtle refuses to try it. Can I leave the sticks in until he eats it or is it not safe to do that?

  28. avatar

    Hello Dianne,

    Thanks for your interest. It’s common for turtles to refuse new foods at first. You can leave it in for an hour or so, but it softens quickly and may break up; bacterial decomposition will also set in after awhile. What type of turtle is it, and what is the usual diet?….some species are very picky, so please let me know when you can.

    You can keep healthy turtles hungry for quite a long time w/o ill effect….just like us, hunger tends to improve taste!

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  29. avatar

    It’s a snapping turtle. I recently found him after a flood and so far he’s been refusing everything but lettice. I know that isn’t enough for his diet so I’m hoping he takes a liking to this

  30. avatar

    Hello Dianne

    Thanks for the feedback. Strange that it will take lettuce, as they usually eat only fish, insects and such until they are much larger, they may take a few plants (I’m assuming it’s a young one?).

    He will need a high protein/high calcium diet. However, sometimes they eat very little in winter, even if kept warm…an “internal clock” tells them to slow down; however, some feed all winter. Usually not a problem if they are otherwise healthy. Room temps are fine, but an incandescent bulb over 1 corner of tank may encourage appetite by warming the area.

    It’s important that the turtle eventually begins to take small whole fishes (goldfish ok on occasion, but minnow, shiners preferable), earthworms, dried prawn, reptomin if possible also, but fish/worms/prawn should tempt it more. Shrimp from supermarket good in small amounts also. Here is an article with some further info, with links to 2 others.

    If very small, turtle will also take live blackworms (sold for trop fish), but whole fish are essential (calcium, internal organs necessary for health).

    Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  31. avatar

    He appears to be 10-13 yrs to me.
    I live in a Carribbean country so winter is really of no concern.
    He just ate the sticks so I’m really happy.
    Thank you for the information it’ll be much appreciated as I am a Veterinary student.

  32. avatar

    Hello Dianne

    Thanks…very interesting. The Common Snapping Turtle, Chelydra serpentina, has been introduced to 3 states in the western USA, China, Taiwan and Japan, but seems not to have been recorded in the Caribbean. But they are widely transported as pets and food items, so it very well could be.

    Chelydra acutirostris occurs in northern S. America, and so could likely spread to nearby islands, although I cannot find any records.

    Are snappers seen often? If you have a chance and can ID it, I’d love to know and can forward the info to interested colleagues.

    It will be hard to fill him up on Reptomin; ZuPreem makes a larger pellet, or did in the recent past; trout or salmon chow is also excellent if you can find it. Considering age, would be good to offer some other produce as well…romaine, dandelion, kale and so on.

    Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  33. avatar

    Alot of people keep them as pets here. They’re sold in the local pet stores and I guess some people may free them after sometime. It’s not really seen regularly in the wild. but he doesnt seem vicious so it coukld very well be another turtle that our country may mistake for the snapping turtle

  34. avatar

    Hello Dianne

    Thanks for the feedback. If you have a chance, could I trouble you to send a photo to findiviglio@thatpetplace.com, along with location? No hurry, but I’m interested in learning what it is, and know folks who could make use of the info. If not a snapper, I can send revised diet info if needed. Thanks.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  35. avatar

    I put this in my green tree frogs water dish, is it safe that way? Because I don’t think he was eating it dry like that. So I put it in his water dish to see if hell get the food that way.

  36. avatar

    Hi Apryl,

    Thanks for your note. Green tree frogs will only take live food (they are stimulated to feed by movement, so will sometimes take dead insects via forceps, but Reptomin is not really formulated to meet their nutritional needs). OnlY very few frogs are known to take non living foods – African Clawed frogs and relatives, Marine Toads (rarely), and an unusual South American treefrog that sometimes feeds on berries. Their diet should be varied, however…please see this article (info applies to green tree frogs) and let me know if you need other ideas on diet. Best, Frank

  37. avatar

    hi there,, really worried not a question abt reptomin in particular but more a question abt my frogs health, i have african clawed frogs and have had them for couple of years now, but only just noticed that 2 of them have got really horrible looking scabs and red spots all over there body’s??
    does not look good at all!! do you possibly know what this could be as its got me really worried abt them?? would really apreciate some advise please! simon…

  38. avatar

    Hello,

    While any number of diseases can cause those symptoms, most commonly what s involved is high ammonia levels in aquarium. Ammonia in tanks is colorless and largely odorless, and concentrations will increase as the frogs grow and eat/defecate more. Ammonia irritates the skin, causing lesions and red areas. Bacteria and fungi which are always present then take hold, causing further problems. best to immediately move the frogs to clean , de-chlorinated water of approximately the same temperature as they are in now. Add some Stress coat or a similar product (avail for fish at most pet stores) to help protect the irritated skin. Clean the aquarium and replace the water and filter media.

    If the animals do not start to improve in 2-3 days,you can try treatment with methylene blue as described here.. However, since a number of micro-organisms may be involved, vet attention is preferable. Pl let me know if you need help in locating an experienced vet.

    Partial water changes are critical to their health, as is a suitable filter. Please let me know if you need more info on this.

    Please keep me posted, Best, Frank

  39. avatar

    my son has found a toad. he is very small. about 3/4 inch big. we’ve had him for two days. I have been giving him reptomin bites and he has taken no interest in them. I have no idea where to start to feed him and care for him. any information would be beyond helpful. I thank you advance.

  40. avatar

    Hi lori,

    Toads will not eat dry foods…live insects only. Young ones are difficult to raise, even for experienced keepers…prone to vitamin and nutritional deficiencies; wild caught animals will have parasites as well, which may or may not need treatment. Best to release the toad, after dark, where it was found. here is an article describing care, but aggain, not a good choice for a beginner. I can send info of frogs/toads that are available as captive bred animals, and which are easier to care for; one, the African Clawed frog, does not need live food, will take reptomin, etc. Please let me know if you need info, best, Frank

  41. avatar

    Frank,
    I just bought a fire belly toad yesterday and I noticed he will not eat the dried meal worms. I could not get the live ones because I am not able to refrigerate them. Also, my mother wont let me buy the live crickets. She thinks they may get loose. Can I feed my fire belly toad live earth worms? I may have to take him back to the store if I cannot find a feeding alternative.

  42. avatar

    Hi Niki,

    They will not take non-living food, unless moved about with a tweezers, etc. Mealworms need not be refrigerated but actually they are not a great food item. Earthworms are one of the best foods to use, will keep in frig for weeks. Crickets are ok as part of the diet, especially if fed well (see here). Escapees rarely survive long, but your mom might change her mind if you use this cricket pen designed to prevent escapes (or not!). other good foods that are unlikely to escape include flightless houseflies, butter worms, calci-worms, silkworms, sowbugs (one of the best, a/k/a pillbugs, which can be collected also) available online or let me know if you need help finding a source. Small roaches also, but I’m guessing that idea won’t fly! Best to use lots of variety, with earthworms as a base food, can collect moths, harvestman, etc in warm weather.. Also be sure to add Calcium to most meals, vitamins 2-3 x week. The articles linked below have more ideas for frog diets…please keep me posted, enjoy, Frank.
    http://bit.ly/eyRJ2E
    http://bit.ly/asjzz2

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About Frank Indiviglio

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Being born with a deep interest in animals might seem unfortunate for a native Bronxite , but my family encouraged my interest and the menagerie that sprung from it. Jobs with pet stores and importers had me caring for a fantastic assortment of reptiles and amphibians. After a detour as a lawyer, I was hired as a Bronx Zoo animal keeper and was soon caring for gharials, goliath frogs, king cobras and everything in-between. Research has taken me in pursuit of anacondas, Orinoco crocodiles and other animals in locales ranging from Venezuela’s llanos to Tortuguero’s beaches. Now, after 20+ years with the Bronx Zoo, I am a consultant for several zoos and museums. I have spent time in Japan, and often exchange ideas with zoologists there. I have written books on salamanders, geckos and other “herps”, discussed reptile-keeping on television and presented papers at conferences. A Master’s Degree in biology has led to teaching opportunities. My work puts me in contact with thousands of hobbyists keeping an array of pets. Without fail, I have learned much from them and hope, dear readers, that you will be generous in sharing your thoughts on this blog and web site. For a complete biography of my experience click here.
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