Home | Breeding | Aggression in Male Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana) and Nesting Behavior in Females: the Effects of Hormonal Changes and the Breeding Season

Aggression in Male Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana) and Nesting Behavior in Females: the Effects of Hormonal Changes and the Breeding Season

Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.

Green IguanaBreeding season aggression is a potentially serious concern for owners of male green iguanas.  Spurred by reproductive hormones, mature males, even those which have been placid for years, may suddenly become dangerously aggressive.  This most often, although not necessarily, occurs in the late winter to early spring in the USA, so I thought that a word of caution might be in order at this time.

The Results of an Iguana Bite

If you are caught off-guard, an iguana attack can be quite severe.  A former coworker of mine, well-seasoned in reptile care, was surprised by an aggressive male who had been living without incident in the collection for over 10 years. The animal latched onto his throat and then fell to the floor, leaving a wound that required 18 stitches to close.

Timing and Indications of Sexual Maturity

Depending upon dietary and other factors, male green iguanas may reach sexually maturity as early as 18 months of age or as late as 7 years or more.  Unfortunately, the onset of aggression may be quite sudden, may not occur every year, and can last from 2 weeks to several months.  As you can see from the preceding story, animals may be even-tempered for many years before suddenly changing their behavior. 

Males in breeding condition may exhibit a deepening of coloration in the orange-tinted areas of the head and body, and may head-bob and erect their crests.  Waxy secretions are usually present along the femoral pores, and dried semen is often found in their cages.  However, these changes do not always precede aggressive behaviors, so caution is always a necessity around large males.

Dealing With an Aggressive Iguana

A number of strategies for dealing with aggressive male iguanas have been proposed, with results varying widely.  I suggest that a plastic garbage can lid be held as a ready shield when working around aggressive males…a broom works well if the animal is at large in a room.  Fighting back with these tools may convince the animal to seek an easier target.  Avoiding close contact with the animal until the “mania” has passed, and keeping a shield at hand, are the safest options.  An alcohol-soaked rag (please see below) and, if possible, a helper, are very useful as well.

Some pet owners deflect aggression by providing their iguana with a towel to attack (or mate with!), while others keep the animal in a darkened room for 3-4 days to lessen the production of testosterone and other hormones.  Surgically neutering the animal is also an option, but the results of such have been mixed – in a significant number of cases the aggressive behavior remains largely unchanged.

If You Are Bitten

If you are bitten, do not pull your hand away.  Stabilize the animal so that it cannot thrash about and apply an alcohol-soaked rag to the lizard’s nostrils (avoid the eyes).  Liquor is fine to use (for the rag, not for drinking while working with your pet!) and should always be within reach during the breeding season.  Once the iguana releases its grip, secure it in its enclosure and call your doctor for instructions as to wound care.  Please do not neglect this step, as a tetanus shot or other care may be required, even for relatively minor wounds.

The Tail as a Weapon

The iguana that I am holding in the accompanying photo caused the cuts visible on my arm with a mere flick of his tail…the jaws are capable of doing much worse.  I came across him and the larger male (who, at 5’11″ long, was the largest I encountered in the field) while working on anaconda research in Venezuela’s central llanos country.

Gravid Female Iguanas

Mature female iguanas often develop eggs as spring arrives.  Such will occur with or without the presence of a male, so be sure to watch even those animals which are housed alone.  Ideally, unmated females will resorb the eggs into their bodies, and have no need for nesting sites.  However, sometimes the eggs develop fully and, consequently, must be deposited.

Gravid (egg-bearing) female iguanas will usually cease feeding, or feed less vigorously, and will become very restless.  They often injure themselves by rubbing along cage walls and screening at this time, and they may attempt to dig through the cage floor.

Providing a Nest Site and Avoiding Egg Retention

Females without access to an appropriate nest site may retain their eggs, which will lead to potentially fatal health problems.  Provide gravid females with a large plastic container filled to a depth of 18-24 inches with moist top soil and moss.  Covering the container and warming the earth’s surface with a lamp may induce her to accept it as a nest site.  There are a number of other tricks you can try…please write in it you need further information.

Veterinary intervention may be required if the female refuses to lay her eggs.  In many cases, an injection of oxytosin is effective in causing the eggs to be expelled.

Further Reading

I’ve written about my experiences with wild green iguanas in another article on this blog.  Please see The Green Iguana on the Venezuelan Llanos.

An interesting article on iguana farming and conservation efforts in Belize is posted at http://www.thewildones.org/Belize/iguana.html.

I’ve observed breeding-related aggression in a wide variety of reptiles and amphibians.  It may be tied to light cycles, humidity, rainfall, temperature, diet and, possibly, changes in barometric pressure.  We still have a great deal to learn.  Doing so will help in our efforts to breed animals in captivity, and decrease the likelihood of injuries where dangerous species are concerned. Please write in with your observations, questions and comments, and I will highlight them in future articles.  Thanks, until next time, Frank Indiviglio.

4 comments

  1. avatar
    iguana care sheet

    I follow your blog for quite a long time and should tell that your articles always prove to be of a high value and quality for readers.

  2. avatar

    Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks for your interest in our blog and kind comment, much appreciated. Please stay in touch…I look forward to hearing from you in the future.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  3. avatar

    Wow! Thank you! I always wanted to write in my site something like that

  4. avatar

    Hello, Frank Indiviglio here. Thanks for your kind comment and interest in our blog.

    I look forward to your future questions and comments; please let me know if I can be of any assistance.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

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About Frank Indiviglio

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Being born with a deep interest in animals might seem unfortunate for a native Bronxite , but my family encouraged my interest and the menagerie that sprung from it. Jobs with pet stores and importers had me caring for a fantastic assortment of reptiles and amphibians. After a detour as a lawyer, I was hired as a Bronx Zoo animal keeper and was soon caring for gharials, goliath frogs, king cobras and everything in-between. Research has taken me in pursuit of anacondas, Orinoco crocodiles and other animals in locales ranging from Venezuela’s llanos to Tortuguero’s beaches. Now, after 20+ years with the Bronx Zoo, I am a consultant for several zoos and museums. I have spent time in Japan, and often exchange ideas with zoologists there. I have written books on salamanders, geckos and other “herps”, discussed reptile-keeping on television and presented papers at conferences. A Master’s Degree in biology has led to teaching opportunities. My work puts me in contact with thousands of hobbyists keeping an array of pets. Without fail, I have learned much from them and hope, dear readers, that you will be generous in sharing your thoughts on this blog and web site. For a complete biography of my experience click here.
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