Tarantulas in Captivity, Part II

Note: Please see Tarantulas in Captivity: An Overview of Popular Species for information on other species and an overview of tarantula-keeping.

 

Sri Lankan Ornamental Tarantula, Poecilotheria fasciata

Beautifully colored in gray and greenish-brown with an overlying pattern of light gray, these striking, arboreal tarantulas hail from Sri Lanka and neighboring southern India.  The undersides of the first 2 pairs of legs are bright yellow, adding greatly to the effect of their threat display.

Although they do well in captivity, it must be remembered that these spiders are fast-moving and high strung, with possibly the most powerful tarantula venoms known (such has not proven dangerous to people, but, as with all venoms, the potential for severe allergic reactions exists).  They should not be handled.

 

Ornamental tarantulas should be housed in a tall terrarium with ample climbing surfaces.  A hollow branch or bamboo stick should be provided as a hiding spot – unlike pink-toed and other arboreal spiders, ornamental tarantulas do not construct substantial silken retreats.  They occur in habitats subjected to a prolonged dry season – in captivity, a daily misting of water will satisfy their needs. Ornamentals are one of the few tarantulas that can sometimes be kept in groups (the pink toed tarantulas, Avicularia spp., are the other; please see Part I of this article for cautions) – several spiderlings have even been observed feeding upon the same insect!  Their diet should consist of roaches, crickets, waxworms and wild-caught insects such as moths.

 

Suntiger Tarantula, Psalmopoeus irminia

Venezuela’s suntiger is quite large for an arboreal tarantula, and strikingly marked in black and red.  These qualities, and its relative hardiness, have added to its popularity in recent years – in fact, this species has even been hybridized with the closely related Trinidad chevron tarantula,

P. cambridgei (the offspring are sterile and not brightly-marked). 

 

Suntigers require high humidity and should be kept in a tall terrarium over a moist substrate  and sprayed with water daily.  Clumps of damp sphagnum moss  wedged among the branches and other climbing surfaces will also help in maintaining moisture levels.

Ravenous predators (feed them crickets, roaches, waxworms, moths and other insects) and quick to “take offense”, these beauties live up to the “tiger” portion of their name quite well!

 

Haitian Brown Tarantula, Phormictopus cancerides

This species was formerly imported in large numbers, and was relatively inexpensive for such a large spider.  The state of Florida now prohibits its sale, and importations have fallen off, but captive-hatched animals are regularly available.

 

Native to Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) and Puerto Rico, with close relatives in Cuba, this large, ground-dwelling spider is dark brown in color.  The males are infused with an attractive purple iridescence.  Field reports indicate that they are less likely than other tarantulas to use a specific shelter, and may wander about in search of prey in the manner of wolf spiders.

 

Haitian browns should be kept on a moist substrate  and provided with a cave  in which to hide.  Females are long-lived, easily reaching the 20 year mark in captivity, but their size and willingness to bite and shed urticating hairs renders them unsuitable for those new to tarantula-keeping.  In common with tarantulas from similar habitats, Haitian browns relish earthworms (worms are usually rejected by arboreal and desert-dwelling spiders).  They will also take crickets, roaches, wild-caught insects and dead pink mice.

 

Mexican or Arizona Blond Tarantula, Aphonopelma chalcodes

This is one of the few North American tarantulas to have become popular in the pet trade, and with good reason – adapted to the harsh conditions of their Sonoran Desert (southern Arizona and northern Mexico) home, females can reach ages of 20 years or more in captivity.  It is also a beautifully-marked spider that exhibits an unusual degree of sexual dimorphism – females are tawny brown with dark basal (close to body) leg segments, while males are slate blue with orange to reddish abdomens.

 

Mexican blond tarantulas construct burrows of up to 2 feet in length, the entrances of which are covered with silk by day, apparently to conserve moisture.  This species’ life history is strongly influenced by environmental conditions and its activity levels are cyclical in nature.  The spiders may remain sealed within their burrows for 6 months at a time, while in July and August the males wander about en masse in search of females.

 

Mexican blonds should be housed in a terrarium with a deep (they do best if allowed to construct burrows), dry substrate of gravel and sand.  They are quite docile, but this should not be taken to mean that they can be carelessly handled (please see Part I of this article).  Like all desert-adapted spiders, they require but a light misting of water every few days, and are prone to fungal infections if kept under damp conditions.  Captive-born Mexican blond tarantulas, even those several generations removed from the wild, seem tuned to an “internal clock” and may go off-feed for extended periods.  As they store a great deal of food in the abdomen, and have experimentally gone without feeding for up to 2 years, this is not a concern for healthy individuals.

 

Oklahoma Brown Tarantula, Aphonopelma hentzi

This native of the American Midwest is only rarely encountered in the trade, and its care is similar to that of the Mexican blond tarantula (see above).

 

I mention it here due to an interesting peculiarity in its natural history.  The burrows of this spider are often inhabited by the 1 ½ inch long Great Plains narrow-mouthed toad, Gastrophryne olivacea.  Despite the amphibian-eating propensities of most tarantulas, the toad remains unmolested by its huge host.  Possibly, it is protected by skin toxins or, it is theorized, the toad performs a service by consuming tiny flies, ants and other insects that might parasitize the tarantula or consume its eggs.  The toad, in return, receives a safe, moist home and the protection of an aggressive predator.

 

Scores of other tarantulas and spiders, as well as scorpions, millipedes, pill bugs, centipedes, mantids, roaches and other invertebrates, make fascinating terrarium subjects.  It has been my good fortune to have studied a number of species in the wild, and to have helped establish the Bronx Zoo’s invertebrate collection.  I will post addition invertebrate-oriented articles from time to time. Meanwhile, please write in with your questions.  I would also greatly appreciate your suggestions as to future topics.  Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

A comprehensive, well-illustrated article on tarantula biology and natural history is posted at:

http://www.thebts.co.uk/old_articles/natural.htm

Herp Notes – Seagoing Frogs, Parthenogenic Snakes, and a Request for Your Observations

While working in a large tropical bird exhibit at the Bronx Zoo some years back, I was startled to come across tiny frogs hidden among the leaf litter.  I was able to identify them as Greenhouse frogs, Eleutherodactylus planirostris (an apt name, it turns out).  These 1.4 inch-long Cuban natives have been transported around the world, hidden among plants and soil.  Their eggs are laid on land, and the tadpole stage is passed within the egg, so the frogs readily establish themselves in greenhouses and other warm, humid habitats.  It always pays to (discretely) poke around in walk-through zoo exhibits and such places – you never know.

 

The greenhouse frog belongs to the family Eleutherodactylidea, which contains over 800 species.  Recent research at Pennsylvania State University revealed that all types currently found in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean arrived there by rafting on vegetation over the open seas from South America, rather than across an ancient land bridge, as was previously assumed.  Apparently, individuals of a single species landed in Mexico, and others (again, 1 species) in Central America, and then each evolved into the large number of species found in these places today.

 

Another world traveler, the Flowerpot snake (or Brahminy blind snake), Ramphotphlops braminus, also utilizes a unique reproductive strategy to establish new populations in far-flung habitats.  All individuals of this species are female and reproduce via parthenogenesis, so only 1 animal is needed to start a colony.  I’ve had the good Flowerpot Snakefortune of running into this odd creature, as well as “banana” spiders, rattlesnakes and others, in unexpected surroundings – more on that next time.

 

I am very interested in introduced populations of reptiles, amphibians and other animals and would greatly appreciate hearing about your own experiences.  Please write in – I’ll be sure to include your observations in my articles.  Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

An informative article on this frog’s history in Florida, along with a photo, is posted at:

http://nis.gsmfc.org/nis_factsheet.php?toc_id=205

 

Tarantulas in Captivity – An Overview of Popular Species, Part I

Thailand Black TarantulaAlthough only 906 of the world’s 40,024 spider species are tarantulas (Family Theraphosidae), these interesting creatures are the best known of the group and among the most sought-after of invertebrate pets. Reptile enthusiasts, myself included, seem particularly drawn to them, hence their inclusion in this blog. Today I would like to provide an overview of the group and specifics concerning some readily available species. Future articles will cover care and breeding in detail.

Please Note: Tarantulas, like all spiders, manufacture venom and are capable of delivering a painful bite. Human fatalities from bites are unknown, but their venoms are relatively unstudied, and an allergic reaction is always possible. New World species also possess urticating (irritating) hairs, which are shed when the spider is disturbed. A colleague of mine required surgery to remove hairs shed by a Mexican Red Knee Tarantula (a relatively docile species) from his eye. Do not handle tarantulas, despite what you may see others do – move the spiders, if at all, by urging them into a plastic container, and wear goggles where appropriate. Please also check the legalities of tarantula ownership – several species are protected by law; others are prohibited in some states.

Tarantulas in General
Tarantulas range in size from those that mature at 1 inch in length to behemoths with 12 inch leg spans, and may be ground-dwelling, fossorial (burrowing) or arboreal. Females of several species can reach 30 years of age (most males live but 1 or 2 years).

They are found in tropical, sub-tropical and (less commonly) temperate regions of Africa, the Middle East, southern Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Indo-Pacific, Micronesia, Central and South America, the southern half of the USA and throughout the Caribbean. Various species are adapted to live in deserts, open forests, grasslands and rainforests. A number also thrive around people, and may be found in overgrown fields, agricultural areas, gardens and even within homes.

Although considered to be “primitive” spiders, tarantulas are quite successful as a group, and are the dominant invertebrate predators in many environments. They take any animal that can be overcome, including spiders, centipedes and other invertebrates as well as snakes, frogs, lizards, mice and other small rodents. The name “bird-eating spider” was first applied to the group in 1705 when Swiss naturalist Maria Sibylla Merian included, in a book on the insects of Suriname, a painting of a pink-toed tarantula consuming a hummingbird.

Tarantulas are distinguished from other spiders by their book lungs (unique respiratory organs), the presence of 2 claws and adhesive pads on the tips of the legs and by the fact that they use their fangs in an “up and down” as opposed to “side to side” motion.

Goliath Bird-eating Tarantula, Theraphosa blondi
This rich-brown spider is the undisputed king of the trade and, with a leg-span approaching 12 inches, of the spider world as well. Relatively unknown here until the early 1980’s (please look for my future note concerning my early experiences with them), captive born goliaths are now readily available. This animal is not, however, for the beginner – they are extremely aggressive and fairly demanding as captives.

Native to the rainforests of northeastern South America, goliath birdeaters require high humidity in captivity and a terrarium of at least 20 gallons in size. They should be provided with deep, moist substrate in which to burrow, or an artificial cave . Adults are fully capable of overcoming an adult mouse, but such is not recommended as food (dead mice are accepted). They fare well on roaches, earthworms, crickets and wild-caught insects such as grasshoppers and katydids.

Mexican Red Knee Tarantula, Brachypelma smithi
Quite different from the goliath in color, temperament and captive needs, the red knee is responsible for the advent of tarantula keeping in this country. Jet-black with bright red-orange leg joints, this spider is quite calm in temperament (but can bite and shed urticating hairs, see above) and hardy. One that I received as an adult lived for 18 years, putting its total age at over 23, and similar records are common.

The red knee hails from western Mexico, and is tolerant of quite dry conditions (recent hatchlings need a fairly moist environment, however). It does well on a sand-gravel substrate and readily accepts crickets, roaches, newly-molted super mealworms and wild-caught insects. This species is now protected by the Mexican government, but captive-born specimens are commonly available.

Pink-toed Tarantula, Avicularia avicularia
Unlike the previous 2 spiders, the pink-toed tarantula (named for its pink-tipped “toes”, or tarsi) is strictly arboreal. It is also unique in that it is encouraged, rather than displaced, by human activities. Various species range from the Caribbean south to Peru, and readily colonize homes, gardens and parks.

Pink-toed tarantulas construct a thick, silken retreat on tree trunks, roof eves and among plants (where they will often bind 2 leaves together to form sturdy walls for their homes). They prefer moderate humidity, but are fairly tolerant in that regard. Oddly for a spider, pink toed tarantulas get along fairly well in groups, with 2-3 individuals usually co-existing in a tank of 20 gallons or so in size. They should be kept in a vertically-oriented terrarium (an aquarium turned on end works well) furnished with cork bark, bamboo and other climbing surfaces. Pink toes relish moths and other wild-caught insects, but also fare well on crickets, roaches and waxworms.

Thailand Black Tarantula, Haplopelma minax
This Southeast Asian native is the first of the Old World species that we will cover. Like all, it lacks urticating hairs, but more than compensates for this with its extremely aggressive nature and willingness to bite. They are also quite fast, and should not be handled. Threatened individuals rear up on their back legs to expose the large fangs – which, highlighted against a red-colored patch and often tipped by a drop of venom, are intimidating in the extreme. I have observed several to fall right over onto their backs during the threat display – a position from which, it would seem, an enemy could not approach without being bitten (I have not tried, nor will I!).

This species requires a moist substrate into which it can burrow and, being high-strung, does best with minimal disturbance. A night-viewing bulb will enhance your ability to watch the spider go about its nightly activities. Thailand black tarantulas should be fed earthworms, roaches, crickets and wild caught insects such as moths and grasshoppers.

The photo accompanying this article shows a Thailand black tarantula in typical tarantula hunting position – poised at the burrow’s entrance, ready to pounce upon prey or retreat from an enemy. The silk that you see is used to provide stability to the burrow’s walls and most likely alerts the spider, via vibrations, of approaching animals. It is not, and this hold true for all tarantulas, used to ensnare prey.

Next time we’ll take a look at a few other species, including some that are less well- known but gaining in popularity. Until then, please write in with your questions and comments. Thanks, Frank.

You can access a wealth of tarantula-related resources at:
http://www.exoticfauna.com/

Hunting Anacondas in the Venezuelan Llanos – notes and photos for fans of giant snakes

Growing up near the Bronx Zoo, I became fascinated by giant snakes early on, as these magnificent creatures were always featured prominently in my favorite building, the Reptile House.  So it was with great anticipation that, after some years as a reptile keeper for the zoo, I set off for Venezuela to assist in field studies of the green anaconda, arguably the world’s largest snake.

 

Accounts of what I observed and learned during three visits to that country’s central llanos area (seasonally flooded grasslands) would fill several books.  I would like here to just give you some facts and photos – in the future, I will highlight some of my experiences in longer articles.

 

Despite long-standing legends to the contrary, (and, recently, a plethora of internet photos) there is only one reasonably reliable account of a snake measuring over 30 feet in length (I’ll cover the details of this and related stories in the future).  In fact, the Bronx Zoo offered a cash reward, established, as legend has it, by Theodore Roosevelt, for a living snake in excess of 30 feet.  That reward, now withdrawn, stood uncollected for nearly 100 years (I was involved in the last attempt to collect it – please look for details in the future).

 

The snake you see pictured here was the largest that I and my colleagues encountered.  It measured just over 17 feet long and weighed 215 pounds.  As you can see from the close-up of my hand on its head, she (all anacondas Me with 17 ft, 215 lb. green anaconda
of this size are females) put up a quite vigorous battle when captured – indeed, one of her teeth remains imbedded in my wrist till this day as a reminder!  A number of the 500+ green anacondas that were marked during the study were in the 15 to 16 foot range.

 

I was fortunate to come upon quite a few anacondas in the process of feeding upon a wide array of animals, including capybara, caiman, jacanas and other birds, turtles and, most unforgettably, a deer of 60 pounds in weight.  Please look for future articles on the details of these most fascinating encounters.

 

The Venezuelan llanos, especially in the dry season, offers a wildlife-viewing extravaganza that is difficult to put into words.  Encounters with crab-eating foxes, freshwater dolphins, giant anteaters, armadillos, electric eels, caiman, scarlet ibis and countless other creatures large and small are all but guaranteed.  Cougars, jaguars, giant otters, tamandua, tree boas, tegus and a host of others are also a real possibility.  I am planning to write an article for people who might like it explore (and “exploration” it is, in the true sense of the word) this area – please look for it in the future.

 Anaconda Emerging from the water

Thank you, until next time, Frank.

 

You can learn more about the field research project I described in this article at:

Anaconda Expert Wades Barefoot in Venzuela’s Swamps

The Spotted Salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, – Care in Captivity – Part 1

Welcome to our new blog location!

 

Please see here for more background information on this animal’s natural history and life cycle in the wild.

 

General

Despite living largely underground in the wild, captive spotted salamanders adjust well to artificial caves and shelters, where they are more easily observed.  Well-adjusted captSpotted Salamanderives quickly lose their secretive, nocturnal ways, and will eagerly accept food offered by plastic feeding tongs.  If attention is paid to their needs, especially as concerns temperature (see below), these stocky, brilliantly marked salamanders make long-lived and hardy pets.

 

Space and Other Physical Requirements

If provided with a deep (6-12 inches) substrate, spotted salamanders will establish burrows that will be defended and used consistently.  Products such as Zoo Med Eco Earth and R-Zilla Fir/Sphagnum Moss Bedding, with a bit of top soil mixed in, work well as substrates.  The surface should be covered with living or dried sheet moss, such as R-Zilla Compressed Frog Moss.  You can spot clean this type of set-up or occasionally remove the top layer of substrate – living plants in the terrarium will aid in absorbing the salamander’s waste products.

 

Another useful tip in maintaining cleanliness is to establish a colony of isopods (sow bugs or pill bugs) in the terrarium.  These small crustaceans can easily be collected below rocks and leaf litter.  They are excellent salamander food and avidly consume feces, dead insects and decaying moss (a bit of fish flake food added occasionally will keep them in top shape and assure that they reproduce). 

 

Land snails are also excellent scavengers, and both they and isopods are fascinating creatures in their own rights.  Snails usually reproduce readily in captivity, and small specimens will be eagerly devoured by spotted salamanders.

 

A single adult spotted salamander requires an enclosure of approximately the size of a 10 gallon aquarium.

 

Spotted salamanders may also be kept in ventilated sweater boxes on sheet moss or paper towels.  Each animal should be provided an individual artificial cave or cork bark shelter.

 

Light, Heat and Humidity

Spotted salamanders favor cool temperatures, retreating far below-ground during the summer months.  They do best at 60-70 F, and are stressed by temperatures over 76 F.  Cool basements make ideal sites for their terrariums, especially during the summer months.  My own basement maintains an air temperature of 50-54 F in the winter, during which time the salamanders continue to feed.  The drop in temperature is good for their health, and helps to maintain normal activity patterns and to spur breeding.

 

Breathing largely through their skin, spotted salamanders require moist conditions – their terrarium should be misted with de-chlorinated (not distilled) water daily.  Free-living adults rarely enter water other than for breeding, but a shallow, easily-exited water bowl will be utilized by captives. 

 

Humidity should not be raised by covering the terrarium with plastic – salamanders require circulating air and should be housed in screen-covered enclosures.  In stagnant air conditions, temperatures rise and fungus often attacks the skin.

 

Spotted salamanders do not require a UVB light source.  If you keep live plants in the terrarium, be sure to use a low output UVB bulb, such as the Reptisun 2.0, as too much UVB can damage the eyes of these and other amphibians.  Check also that the bulb does not cause temperatures to spike.

 

If you keep your salamanders in an unlit basement, it is a good idea to provide a light cycle for them in the form of a weak room light or fluorescent tank light.  They will do fine in complete darkness, but a day/night period is preferable, especially if you plan on breeding your animals.

Check back next Monday for the conclusion of this article. The image above is referenced from the Spotted Salamander entry on Wikipedia.

 

Until Next Time,

 

Frank

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