Home | Amphibians | Albino and Leucistic American Bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana (Lithobates catesbeianus): a Request for Your Input

Albino and Leucistic American Bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana (Lithobates catesbeianus): a Request for Your Input


Albino BullfrogsAlbino and leucistic American bullfrogs are becoming quite popular in the pet trade.  The two females that I’m holding in the accompanying photograph are approximately 1 year old, and were received as tadpoles.  The other photograph shows two others in an exhibit I prepared for the Maritime Aquarium in Connecticut (note the pumpkinseed sunfish…bullfrogs usually do quite well with predatory fish).

Basking Platforms

Albino Bullfrogs in ExhibitThe frogs in the exhibit photo are resting upon an R-Zilla Basking Platform.  I use these extensively, both at home and in the zoo/aquarium exhibits that I design.  The platforms are very realistic in appearance, especially when surrounded by real or artificial plants and with a light covering of algae.  They are equipped with a stick built into the surface – you can wedge a bit of R-Zilla Beaked Moss below this for extra effect.  I also favor the Zoo Med Turtle Dock.  One end of this platform slopes below the water, providing easy access to metamorphosing frogs, newts and other creatures that might need a bit of help exiting the water.  I’ve also used this model for a spotted turtle that lost his rear legs in an accident…the gentle slope allows him to easily climb on board.

In most situations, I prefer suspended platforms to rock piles, as the former leave the water below clear for swimming.  Cork Bark works well also, but floats freely or must be cut to fit the tank and wedged into place.

An Un-cooked Chicken!

Most visitors to the aquarium remark favorably upon the albinos, which live in an exhibit with normally colored bullfrogs.  I did, however, overhear one gentleman respond to his companion’s “Aren’t they interesting?” with a definitive “They look like un-cooked chickens”!

Unusual Physical Traits (in addition to their color, or lack thereof!)

Albino bullfrogs behave in all respects as do normally-colored individuals, and like them vary greatly in their dispositions.  The two in my collection are incredibly shy, while a male on exhibit frequently calls during the day, in full view of the visitors.  However, I noticed that mine lacked the solid “feel” that I associate with bullfrogs, and seem not to have very good muscle tone.  They move slowly, and “slide” more than jump from basking sites when disturbed.  Those at the aquarium, and in the possession of a colleague in Louisiana, exhibit similar characteristics.

All were raised on well-proven bullfrog tadpole favorites (kale, algae, algae tabs, Tetramin fish flakes and bits of fish) and since metamorphosis have been fed a varied, high calcium diet that has always yielded robust frogs in the past – crayfish, minnows, earthworms, well-fed crickets, roaches and wild-caught cicadas, grasshoppers and other insects.


Field notes on albino bullfrog tadpoles in the wild are detailed in an article posted at:


A visitor to the aquarium exhibit mentioned in this article has posted a video about it, see below


  1. avatar

    I’ve always thought they are somewhat interesting in their own right…though I much prefer natural colors(I think that alot of the snake/leopard gecko stuff is pretty ridiculous). I’ve considered getting a few to see how they do in my pond.(if they breed like the regular bullfrogs I’d be in luck!) They’d probably get picked off by predators pretty quick.

    Being in CA, I’ve often considered/made half hearted attempts to eradicate them(quite tough when every 2 years they lay a big batch of eggs!). But I and the folks are bit fond of their calls. We’ve never had the backyard toads(B. boreas halophilus) breed in our ponds before. Do you think if I removed the bullfrogs that might make the difference? I’ve assumed it was mainly due to a rock border around the pond. I’ve observed the toads diving into it, and occasionally find one swimming around in the pond in the winter.

  2. avatar

    Hello Joseph,

    Frank Indiviglio here. Thanks for your comment.

    I was set to respond that very few amphibians will consume a toad, due to the presence of bad tasting/toxic secretions but hesitated, as American bullfrogs are in a class by themselves. I made a phone call and was directed to a Herpetological Review (2003) article documenting 2 cases of bullfrogs consuming adult Bufo nelsoni in Nevada. In one instance, the bullfrog could have eaten the toad as long as 11 days before the bullfrog was euthanized and dissected, yet appeared in good health (up until it was euthanized by the researcher, that is!).

    Introduced bullfrogs have been implicated in the near complete eradication of several frog species and of western pond turtle hatchlings in certain habitats…it the toad predation was not an isolated incident then perhaps the frogs could be keeping the toads from breeding in your pond. This would be especially likely if, as some suspect, toxins in young toads are not very virulent – the only other case of frog predation upon toads that I turned up involved Oregon spotted frogs, Rana pretiosa, consuming young B. boreas (regularly) in Oregon.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  3. avatar

    What do you think about putting a young albino bullfrog in with a young paddletail newt? I would appreciate any feedback you have. Thanks.

    • avatar

      Hello, Frank Indiviglio here. Thanks for your interest in our blog.

      I would not be a good idea to house a young albino bullfrog with a newt of any species. Even if the newt is larger than the frog, the frog will definitely try to swallow it. Bullfrogs have tiny teeth in the upper jaw, and can hang on quite tenaciously even to quite large prey. Frogs may hold on for days, slowly digesting that part of the prey that has been swallowed, and pushing the rest in as space becomes available!

      Like most newts, paddletails are likely to be highly toxic, and your bullfrog would almost surely be killed even if he didn’t manage to swallow the newt – this would leave the newt injured and the frog deceased. Unlike poison frogs, newt toxin seems not to be dependent upon diet, and is retained in captivity. As a child working in a pet store, I made the mistake of feeding a nearly deceased red-spotted newt to a huge marine toad… the toad, capable of swallowing a half-grown rat, rolled over and expired instantly!

      As a general rule, it is unwise to mix related animals from different parts of the world…microorganisms which are carried by one, and cause no harm, may be transferred to a foreign relative with fatal consequences (same principle as travelers becoming ill after drinking tap water in foreign countries).

      A note concerning albino bullfrogs: since writing this article, I’ve noticed that my albinos, now 2 years old, have poor muscle density and bone development, despite having been raised on a calcium-rich diet. A similar situation has been reported to me re albino bullfrogs by a public aquarium and a friend. I spoke with a major breeder of these animals, who has noticed this problem on occasion. It may be genetic, as many of the animals in the trade are likely inbred, having arisen from the same small group of founders. The breeder is mixing wild, normally colored frogs into his stock, to increase genetic diversity.

      Just in case the problem is dietary in nature, I suggest that you provide your frog with as much dietary variety as possible, and that you add vitamin/mineral powder to most feedings for the first year or so. Be sure to offer the frog live minnows, shiners and other fish every 7-10 days, along with earthworms, well-fed crickets, newly molted super mealworms and wild caught insects (the Zoo Med Bug Napper is an excellent trap). Crayfish (declawed preferably), if available, are an excellent food source, and an occasional pink mouse (i.e. once each 4-6 weeks) might be helpful. A cricket-only diet will usually lead to severe nutritional deficiencies, even in normally colored frogs.

      Bullfrogs usually take readfily to tong-feeding…canned grasshoppers and silkworms are a great way of providing dietary variety.

      Please write back if you need further details concerning diet.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  4. avatar

    I come from Brazil, my inglês is very poor.

    We have a lot of albinos bullfrogs here.
    Here, our interests is research for use of bullfrogs to human food (frog farms)and in its behaviour.
    We have interests in papers about albinos in post-metamorphic phase.
    We reproduce albinos since 3 years by hormone.
    I’m studing a behavior of albinos and normal pigments in 24h.
    We have ones with yellow and orange spots.
    Plese send a email for me.

    • avatar

      Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Thanks for your interesting comment. There are bullfrog farms here in the USA as well, but only normally colored animals are bred for the food trade…albinos are expensive here, and wind up in the pet trade.

      I’m very interested to know if you have observed any behavioral differences between the normally colored and albino frogs. Also, is there a large market for frog legs in Brazil in general or in your area (where are you located, please?)?

      I have read that bullfrogs have become established in the wild in Brazil. Would you know if this is true, and if so how abundant are they?

      Thanks very much for your interest…any information would be much appreciated.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  5. avatar

    Thank you so much for your response re: my albino bullfrog and paddletail newt. It was very informative and answered a lot of questions I had.
    Ciao a presto!

    • avatar

      Hello Ali, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Thanks for your kind words: I’m very glad that the information was helpful.

      Please keep me posted as to how your animals are doing, and don’t hesitate to write back if you have any questions. Depending upon the size of your tank and other details, there are fishes and amphibians that will co-exist with your newt; please be in touch if you’d like some suggestions.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  6. avatar

    Hi, Frank. I am getting a larger tank for our albino bullfrog today. I will be keeping the paddletail newt in the 15 gallon tank. I would love some suggestions on fish and amphibians that would co-exist the newt. Thank you in advance,

    • avatar

      Hi Ali, Frank Indiviglio here.

      When choosing amphibian tank mates for your newt, it’s best to go with animals that share the same range, to lessen the possibility that micro-organisms naturally carried by one might prove harmful to a foreign relative. Concerning paddle-tailed newts, you’ll want a species that thrives in cool temperatures as well.

      Fire-bellied toads, Bombina orientalis, are ideal…despite the “toad” moniker, they are actually largely aquatic and need only small platform or some floating plants upon which to rest. Golden treefrogs, Polypedates leucomystax, would also be fine, provided you arrange ample above-water branches and plants (they are not comfortable on the ground or in water).

      A paddle-tail relative, the Chinese black-spotted newt, Pachytriton labiatum, is appearing in the trade often these days, and would be a good choice (although the possibility of hybridization may exist). Another hardy and readily available salamander that fits the above criteria is the fire-bellied newt, Cynops orientalis.

      Reptomin Select a Food, supplemented with live blackworms, tiny crickets and earthworms, can form the bulk of the diet of any of the newts mentioned above.

      With fish, disease transmission is less of a concern, so we can focus on those that do well in cool water and will not out-compete the newts for food. Weather loaches, Chinese hillstream loaches (these do best if live algae is present) and armored (Corydoras) catfish would be my first choices. Armored catfishes hail from South American but, when adjusted gradually, do very well in cool and even quite cold water. Gold barbs and white clouds can also be kept, but you’ll need to monitor feeding closely, as either may out-compete the newts (more of a concern with the barbs, due to their size).

      Please bear in mind that bullfrogs produce quite a bit of waste material. Ammonia is very “tricky”…it is clear and relatively odorless, but high levels will kill your in short order. Be sure to use a good submersible filter (submersible models are preferable…no need to worry about hoses entering and leaving the aquarium) and do frequent partial water changes.

      Please let me know if you need anything further,

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  7. avatar

    Hi Frank,
    I wanted to give you an update on all our critters. Our albino bullfrog is doing wonderful. He (or she) is growing and is very healthy. Also, my large paddle-tail that is in with fire-bellied toads is happy and healthy. The fire-bellieds are doing great, and they and the newt all hang out together.
    We have a 15 gallon tank with a smaller paddletail and some guppies. We were thinking about putting a golden tree frog in the 15 gallon also. Is the 15 gallon large enough to house the golden tree frog?
    We have larger rocks, all live plants, and wood in our tanks, along with submersible filters. I also had some mountain cloud feeder minnows breed in the tank with my large paddle-tail and fire-bellieds. We have two left, as the paddle-tail ate the rest. 🙂 Thanks again for all your help.

    • avatar

      Hello Ali, Frank Indiviglio here. Thanks so much for the update and kind words…I’m very happy to hear that the information was useful. Sounds like you are doing a fine job.

      A 15 gallon tank will be fine for a golden treefrog….just be sure to provide plenty of structure above the water. Branches and plants are fine, and try to include something with a thick, solid surface as well – I use up-ended driftwood or artificial tree trunks for treefrogs housed above water. A basking platform will provide an additional feeding site, and will be used as a resting place by the newt as well.

      Keep in mind that the treefrog will be defecating into the water, so watch your water quality and filter changes, and clean any droppings from the glass and driftwood as well.

      Also please be sure to do frequent water changes and add a larger filter as your bullfrog grows, since it will be producing increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes.

      Please continue to keep me posted, good luck and best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  8. avatar

    Hello !! 🙂
    I am Piter Kokoniz. oOnly want to tell, that I like your blog very much!
    And want to ask you: is this blog your hobby?
    Sorry for my bad english:)
    Thank you!
    Piter Kokoniz, from Latvia

    • avatar

      Hello Piter, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Thanks very much for your kind comment, much appreciated.

      I am one of those very fortunate people lucky enough to have turned a hobby into a career…writing the blog articles is both my passion and my job.

      This is a difficult situation to achieve, but well worth the effort in my opinion. If you are interested in pursuing a career with animals, please feel free to write in again, perhaps some of my (many!) mistakes and experience might be helpful. I have also written a book, Newts and Salamanders, which discusses careers with pets and wildlife in general.

      Good luck, enjoy and best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  9. avatar

    We have just received allbino and regular (green ) bullfrog tadpoles – would like to keep the albino indoors in an aquarium and the regular in our goldfish pong. What would be the best diet (they do not have any legs yet). Also I don’t think our goldfish would bother the tadpoles (?) but they eat everything that hits the water – can tadpoles get enough to eat by just consuming algae from the sides of the pond (it is not very much)? Thanks.

    • avatar

      Hello, Frank Indiviglio here. Thanks for your interest in our blog.

      I apologize for being so long in responding. The delay was caused by a technical difficulty which has now been resolved.

      Raising bullfrog tadpoles is great fun…their development is so easy to see, given their size… they are wonderful introductions to metamorphosis for children as well.

      Those indoors need water that has been treated with an instant de-chlorinating agent and mild filtration (a sponge filter or corner filter operated by a small air pump is ideal); be sure to do a 50% or so weekly water change as well. Room temperatures are fine.

      They will grow rapidly if fed daily on a diet comprised of Staple Fish Food Flakes, Algae Tablets and kale. Soak the kale in hot water for 10 minutes before offering it to the tadpoles – this will break down the tough cellulose and render the plants more readily digestible.

      Goldfish will not bother large tadpoles but, as you suggest, they will eat everything before the tadpoles have had a chance to feed. Algae growing within the pond will not be enough to support the tadpoles. Try kale and other greens…some goldfish eat these, others do not. A simpler option might be to feed the tadpoles after dark, using all of the foods mentioned above. In a pond it is important to weight the greens down on the bottom, or the tadpoles may not find them.

      Please write back as their legs appear, as you’ll need to make some changes to their diet and environment at that time.

      Good luck and enjoy…please keep me posted.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  10. avatar

    me and my mom have a new house and it has a pond and we keep hearing the bullfrog croak does that mean he’s male just curios

    • avatar

      Hello Madison, Frank Indiviglio here. Thanks for your interest in our blog.

      Yes, only the male bullfrog calls – he does this to announce to other males that he “owns” a particular territory and also to attract females. Female frogs can judge the male’s suitability as a mate (his size and health) by the sound of his call.

      Small male bullfrogs, which have trouble attracting mates, sometimes wait at the very edge of a large male’s territory. When a female swims past, on her way to the large male, the smaller male may intercept her and mate with her! If a male actually enters the territory of another male, a shoving match will break out and will go on until one gives up and leaves.

      Female bullfrogs and other frogs native to North America will let out a sound when grabbed by a person or predator, but they do not actually call or croak as do the males.

      Bullfrogs are often bold at night, and can be easily spotted with a flashlight.

      Enjoy your pond and frogs, and please let me know what you see.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  11. avatar

    Hello, Frank. Hope all is well with you. First, I would like to tell you that all our critters are doing great since I last emailed. I just purchased a 55 high tank. I’m going to move my fire-bellied toads, paddle-tail newt, minnows and guppies into it. I am very excited, and am adding to it little by little. I would love all the advice you have on which filter and/or pump to use. I need to have a filter that will not suck up any guppy fry. Also, would you recommend a humidifier or fogger or some kind of natural background for the tank? Any advice on plants to use, etc. would be most welcome. Thank you!

    • avatar

      Hello Ali, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Nice to hear from you again.

      Sounds like a great idea – “shoreline” tanks have always been favorites of mine, great potential for all sorts of interesting set-ups. Please see my article The Peace Lily for some photos of one of my tanks, and for information on using live peace lilllies.

      In a 55, the guppy fry will be able to avoid most filters, assuming there are plants and roots for them to hide in. The adults and newts will catch most, but some will escape and breed. The minnows may be a problem, as they are very effective hunters and may catch all the fry; they may also out-compete the newts for dry food and blackworms, etc.

      You can use a ZooMed Canister filter – the smaller model pictured here will be fine for a 55 (designed with turtles in mind)…the intake/outflow can be modified to cut down suction/flow. An undergravel filter is safe for fry, and very efficient; you can pair it with a submersible, but with partial water changes and plenty of live plants you will likely not need to.

      A fogger is not necessary for the amphibians, would be for aesthetics if you wish.

      Zoo Med Turtle Docks are perfect for the land areas in this type of terrarium. I use the suction bracket that comes with the raft to anchor Pothos and peace lilies so that the roots trail down and the foliage grows above the water – great effect; I’ve even used this in museum/public aquarium displays.

      Standing driftwood is also ideal for supporting pothos and other emergent plants, and as a haul-out site.

      Lilies and pothos are your best choices for surface plants; as long as you provide enough light, most typical aquatic plants are okay. I prefer Vallisneria and other grasses, as they anchor well and give a nice effect. Amazon swords may need higher temperatures than you will want to have with the amphibians.

      Cycle should be added to help get your bacterial colonies established.transfer some used filter material from your old filter as well.

      Well, lots to talk about with this, please write back if anything else needs attention,

      Have fun and please keep me posted.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  12. avatar

    Hello Frank, thank you for all your useful advice. I checked out your article on Peace Lilies. I think it’s a great idea, and I like the exposed roots. I picked up some pothos and more driftwood. I am so glad you have this blog! Again, thank you and take care!

    • avatar

      Hello Ali, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Thanks for taking the time to write back; happy to hear the blog is useful to you.

      Please let me know how all goes,

      Enjoy, Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  13. avatar

    I found quite a few albino bullfrog tadpoles living in the wild today in a pond that was probably a few thousand square feet in size. Within the pond, there were normally colored bullfrogs and hundreds of normally colored tadpoles, and a few albino (or leucistic) tadpoles. I probably saw about eight albino tadpoles.

    I had never seen albino bullfrogs before so I thought that this observation might be notable. The pond and bullfrogs are located in Northern California.

  14. avatar

    Do u where i can get albino bullfrogs?

    • avatar

      Hello Darrell, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Thanks for your interest in our blog. I suggest Sandfire Dragon Ranch; they have been breeding them for some time. Availability fluctuates, but sometimes they also have tadpoles, or perhaps can direst you to another source.

      Good luck and please let me know how you make out. I have some possible new insights into their care…please write back if you add them to your collection.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  15. avatar

    If you are in Northern California, there is a place where they exist in the “semi-wild.” You could probably collect a few tadpoles with a net. It’s in Sonoma county.

    • avatar

      Hello Tom, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Thanks for the info. Very interesting to hear that even albinos are established in northern CA! They were originally brought in by commercial frog farms, but albinos that showed up were held back and bred for the pet trade. But there were many escapees and releases, and now it seems they are consuming endangered Red-legged Frogs and small Pacific Pond Turtles. If albinos are surviving, they probably have few natural enemies…

      Good luck and please keep me posted.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  16. avatar
    chris mclachlan

    hello frank

    i recently caught two albino bullfrog tadpoles in a ditch filled with hundreds if not thousands of bullfrog tadpoles in varoius stages of metamorphisis. i have seen at least one other albino in there, but him and the two others my wife is raising in her class room seem to be more sluggish or at least not as robust as the other tadpoles in the pond/tank. is this common or am i seeing things?

    • avatar

      Hello Chris, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Thanks for the most interesting post. It’s quite rare to come across albinos in the wild; they are not common, and those that do hatch are quickly caught by predators. In what state are you located?

      I’ve not noticed that the tadpoles were less robust than others, but I’ve always raised them alone, not with normal individuals. You could very well be seeing a difference. It might be best to separate them from the others, to be sure they get enough to eat. I’d also give them a bit more variety than is normally required – Tetramin Staple Diet fish flakes, algae tabs and kale have worked well for me. Allow the kale to soak in hot water for 3-5 minutes before offering to the tadpoles.

      Please let me know if you need any further information. Also please be in touch if they transform and we can discuss feeding the froglets.
      Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  17. avatar
    chris mclachlan

    i am located in ithaca, michigan which is geographically almost the exact midpoint of the LP. We currently are raising 4 tadpoles in a standard tank (i think 25 gallons). is this too many? i could live with releasing the two “normal” tadpoles back into the ditch. we go back to look at all of the tadpoles a few times a week because we are just amazed at how many are in such a small body of water. i was originally worried about the ditch drying and them all dying but it seems to be too deep and we have gotten too much rain for that to happen i think. almost all of them in their have back legs now so i think they should be fine.

    i have been feeding them a mixture of fish food flakes and boiled romain lettuce which was what i found to feed them on the internet. they seem to be thriving on this diet, and although they veg quite a bit at times, other days they are very active. we have also left a few rocks protruding out of the water for them to climb on when that time comes, and i replace about 1/3 of the tank water with new water from the ditch once or twice a week to refresh the habitat. the water is about 6 inches deep. is this ok? anything else i need to know?

    • avatar

      Hello Chris, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Thanks for the feedback. I have seen bullfrog tads trapped in a moat (Bx Zoo exhibit) that dried out. They cluster together – those on top die first, but they form a protective covering over the others, which remain moist for some time and can breathe atmospheric oxygen to some degree. Some frog and salamander larvae speed up development in response to decreasing water levels; some tiger salamander larvae will actually develop different teeth and wider head as a response, so that they can eat other larvae, rather than invertebrates, and therefore will grow faster and be able to leave the water!

      Tank size is fine for 4 tads; it would be a good idea to replace water more frequently as they grow, as ammonia levels from their wastes will increase. The best strategy is to use a small corner filer or sponge filter plus partial water changes; especially as they mature.

      Best to just soak the romaine, not boil, as you’ll be losing some nutrients (hot water breaks down the thick cell wall, which are not present in aquatic plants).

      If they transform, it would be best not to release the albinos, as survival unlikely; a local zoo, herp club or nature center might be interested if you do not plan on keeping them. I can assist if needed and provide some care info for the frogs.

      Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  18. avatar
    chris mclachlan

    hello frank just giving an update. the tadpoles are doing well, though the albinos seem to develop slower than the normal ones. the normal ones have front and back legs with tails whereas the albinos just have small back legs that have quite a bit of development to go. they dont seem lethargic as they did in the biginning though, they are quite active. not sure if it coincidence or not, but the two white ones seem to always hang out near one another. still living on a diet of flake fish food and romain and they seem to do fine on it (though i have never actually spotted them eating lol). went back to the ditch for a water change yesterday and spotted two seperate white guys, so we know there are at least 4 albinos that came in this litter of tadpoles!

    • avatar

      Hello Chris, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Thanks for the update; very useful info as we still do not know a great deal about albinism in frogs. Would be very interesting to learn if the wild ones transform and survive, just in case you have a chance to check, please let me know.

      Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted on how their development proceeds.

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  19. avatar

    We found an American Albino Bullfrog in the pond this year, just a baby. We knew it wouldn’t make it in the wild so we took it home and it has been our pet ever since. Its very shy, likes to hide except when hungry. Its been 6 months now, feed it crickets, keep it warm with a light, we live in Michigan so its cold most of the time. My daughter has taken in my footsteps with the great love of frogs and glad we have this one to watch and enjoy.

  20. avatar

    I haven’t had good luck with albinos in the past (they died) but now I have two that seem to be doing well. They are very different though. Jack is very shy but lets me hold him without complaint. He has that poor muscle tone and “feel” that you described. Igor is very jumpy and seems a lot more like a typical bullfrog (good muscle tone, great posture, etc) except that he’s albino. Maybe they’re only distant relatives?

    Questions: They really hate the UVB light. What is the minimum time/day I should have the light on them? I usually take their hides out when the light is on because they will never come out as long as it’s on. Thanks.

    • avatar


      Thanks very much for the feedback…interesting to have on hand.

      Normally colored bullfrogs bask a bit, but they can utilize dietary D3 and do fine w/o UVb if fed properly. UVB is likely detrimental/dangerous to albinos, as they lack melanins and other protective skin pigments. I wouldn’t use it. There may be problems with their utilization of nutrients etc, as we see from our shared experiences, but still safer to rely on dietary D3 and CA. Powder all invertebrates used as food with Ca plus D3, and use multivits 3 x weekly. Feed plenty of minnows and an occasional pink mouse. Crayfish also ideal (remove claws) as are earthworms…these can be gut loaded/bred, let me know if you need more info. Please keep me posted, enjoy, best, frank

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About Frank Indiviglio

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Being born with a deep interest in animals might seem unfortunate for a native Bronxite , but my family encouraged my interest and the menagerie that sprung from it. Jobs with pet stores and importers had me caring for a fantastic assortment of reptiles and amphibians. After a detour as a lawyer, I was hired as a Bronx Zoo animal keeper and was soon caring for gharials, goliath frogs, king cobras and everything in-between. Research has taken me in pursuit of anacondas, Orinoco crocodiles and other animals in locales ranging from Venezuela’s llanos to Tortuguero’s beaches. Now, after 20+ years with the Bronx Zoo, I am a consultant for several zoos and museums. I have spent time in Japan, and often exchange ideas with zoologists there. I have written books on salamanders, geckos and other “herps”, discussed reptile-keeping on television and presented papers at conferences. A Master’s Degree in biology has led to teaching opportunities. My work puts me in contact with thousands of hobbyists keeping an array of pets. Without fail, I have learned much from them and hope, dear readers, that you will be generous in sharing your thoughts on this blog and web site. For a complete biography of my experience click here.
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