Click: The Marine or Cane Toad, Bufo marinus (Rhinella marina) in Nature and Captivity – Marine Toads as Pets – Part 1 to read the first part of this article.
Many pet keepers feed their toads heavily on pink and even adult mice. This is a bad idea and will eventually lead to eye, kidney and liver problems. While these aggressive predators certainly take the occasional rodent or lizard in the wild, research has shown that insects, spiders and other invertebrates form the vast majority of their natural diet. In captivity, a goldfish, minnow or shiner can be offered every month or so, perhaps a pink mouse every 6-8 weeks, but limit their intake of vertebrates. Do not feed mice other than pinkies – toads swallow their food alive, and sooner or later they will be injured by a mouse’s sharp teeth.
Wild caught insects, collected from pesticide-free areas, should be offered whenever possible. Zoo Med’s Bug Napper is an excellent insect trap. Sweeping a net through tall grass and searching around outdoor lights will also yield a wide variety of tasty treats. Avoid using spiders, stinging and brightly -colored insects and fireflies, and do not collect during times when your area is being commercially sprayed for mosquito control.
My Marine Toads relish cicadas, katydids, grasshoppers, beetles of all types, moths, tree crickets, caterpillars, sow bugs and most everything else I come up with. Most of my amphibians feed largely upon wild-caught invertebrates throughout the summer, but even a few beetles plucked from a screen door every night or so will go a long way in keeping your pet in the peak of health.
Marine Toads coexist fairly well together, but bear in mind that they need a lot of room and must be kept scrupulously clean. Fighting is rare, but large animals will out-compete smaller ones for food, so hand-feed if in doubt.
The published longevity record is 24 years. Two that I acquired as adults are, at last report, still going strong after 16 years.
Handling and Enrichment
Marine Toads learn very quickly where their meals lie, and will soon greet you as you approach their terrarium. They do not enjoy being held, however, and like all amphibians are subject health problems once the skin’s mucus covering is removed. Handle them – carefully and with clean, wet hands – only when necessary.
Toads in general and this species in particular secrete extremely virulent skin toxins and must be treated with care. Always wash thoroughly after handling them, and never touch your mouth or eyes before doing so. Do not handle Marine Toads if you have a cut in your skin, no matter how tiny it may be. Children and pets must be prevented from coming in contact with these animals, to the point of installing a lock on the terrarium if you are at all unsure. Toads that are licked or swallowed can cause life-threatening reactions.
Marine Toads benefit from hunting opportunities, and remain much more active and alert when provided such on a regular basis. Allow non-threatening insects (crickets may chew on cold or debilitated animals) such as caterpillars, katydids and grasshoppers to roam about their tank when possible. Better still, set your toads up in a secure area outdoors near some over-ripe fruit (to draw beetles and butterflies) or a bush crawling with caterpillars, sit back and enjoy!
Egg-laying in the wild is generally in response to the onset of rainy periods, and such may occur if the toads are provided with “artificial rain” in captivity (more on this in the future). Captives sometime breed spontaneously as well. The tadpoles are fairly hardy – please write in if you are fortunate enough to have a breeding pair.
In some situations, Marine Toads fare well in semi-freedom. They stay quite close to favored territories – the same 5-6 individuals hunted outside my kitchen in Costa Rica every night for several weeks.
While working at the Bronx Zoo, I kept a few at liberty below a row of exhibits, and another small group in a greenhouse. Here they fed upon crickets, roaches, centipedes, spiders and the like, and grew quite fat. They never failed to emerge from their shelters when I arrived each morning, waiting in a semi-circle for the treats (earthworms and crayfish) they had come to expect. They really are among the most responsive of the amphibians – I highly recommend one if you have the space.
Please write in with your questions and comments. Thanks, until next time, Frank.
A great deal of information about Marine Toads is posted at: