Home | Amphibians | Amphibian Learning Abilities – the southern toad, Bufo (Anaxyrus) terrestris and bumblebee mimics

Amphibian Learning Abilities – the southern toad, Bufo (Anaxyrus) terrestris and bumblebee mimics

While thinking about amphibian learning capacities recently, I was reminded of an experiment recounted in the book Animal Behavior (Time, Inc., 1965), written by Niko Tinbergen, one of the giants in the study of ethology (animal behavior). The experiment was conducted at the famous Archbold Research Station in Florida, in the 1960’s.

The robber fly, which is sting-less and tasty, closely resembles the unpalatable bumblebee. A southern toad, which had previously seen neither fly nor bee, was presented with a robber fly, which was promptly eaten. A bumblebee was then offered – the toad grabbed it, was stung, and spit out the bee. A subsequent bumblebee was refused. Then another robber fly was offered – and, its lesson learned, the toad backed away. To prove that the toad was still hungry, the researchers then provided a dragonfly, which was immediately eaten.

I am not aware of research concerning how long such lessons are retained – but my own experience offers some clues. I have long kept green frogs, Rana (Lithobates) clamitans in an outdoor pen, where I used ripe fruit to attract insects for them to eat. Year after year, I observed the same frogs to studiously avoid yellow-jackets and other wasps, while snapping up flies and beetles located close to the wasps. It would appear that they were stung at one point, and that the lesson lasted, as far as I can tell, for at least 6 years.


The book to which I referred above is one in the wonderful Life Nature Library series published by Time, Inc. Don’t let the publication dates fool you – they are packed with original observations and unique photos.


  1. avatar

    Hello Frank,

    I have alot of stories about my toad and here is one. Around when I first got her I was in the bathroom one night watching the Olimpics.It was diving in case you wondered. I came out she was staring att the tv and wouldn’t take her eyes off it. It was really funny

    • avatar

      Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.

      Thanks for the interesting story! Vision is very important to toads…you may have noticed that if an insect remains still, your toad will wait patiently until the insect moves before catching it. They cannot see stationary objects very well, and can only catch their prey when it is in motion.

      Your toad most likely noticed the movement on the TV screen, and thought a meal might be on the way. At the Bronx Zoo I once took care of Colorado River toads, a large species from the southwestern USA. They spent all their time watching and following the movements of the turtles in the next exhibit. Eventually, I had to relocate the toads, as I thought they might injure their skin by constantly rubbing it against the glass sides of their exhibit.

      Biologists discover new information by exactly the same path you are taking – they observe animals, share their information with others, and research to find out why the animal is behaving in a certain way…keep it up!

      Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  2. avatar

    I was in the bathroom with the olimpics on, I wasnt watching it in the bathroom

  3. avatar

    Well everything that you have said is so true and I just happen to have three of the American toads which look similar to the southern toad as well but I have learned to appreciate these baby female American toads and I grew up raising a lot of them and they are very intelligent as you say they are and these ones will grow up to the biggest sizes that they can!

    • avatar

      Hi Ashley,

      Thanks for the kind words. American toads are among the most responsive of all amphibians,. I recently set up an exhibit in an aquarium and they are about the most popular exhibit…even thought here are many colorful fish, sharks etc. Please keep notes on their behavior, I’m sure you’ll see much of inteest, and let me know if you need anything, Enjoy, Frank

  4. avatar

    Hi im caring for 2 american toads that I saved from my yard – one arrived this year and the other last year.

    i normally would feel they would be much happier and healthier outdoors, but I’m afraid to let them go because of what happened to one who previously lived in our garden and showed up every spring .

    I fed her by the base of our tree ( put a tiny bowl with mealworms there for her – loved to watch how fast she could lap food up…her tongue was fast like lightening… we loved seeing her every year. Then during the 4th summer, I found her all cut up from the weedwacker our gardener used. She died overnight. It was very sad.

    Also after reading that they lay hundreds or even thousands of eggs and ive only seen 3 toads in 11 years (at this residence) so obviously there isnt much of a chance for survival in our neighborhood…

    They are safer as a pet, but must be bored…?
    And dont move around much…they dont “hunt” anymore, they wait for food to be right in front of them, and one has the “not very sticky tongue” thing happening.

    I read somewhere that it might be a vitamin A deficiency…
    1) can we spray liquid vitamins onto the toad or put it into their soaking pond ? The toads act like the multi -vit tastes bad on earthworms.

    Im totally rambling…lol
    2) please describe more specifically how to create the pebbles + moss substrate + how to care for that.

    I had white mites once and the viv smells moldy, no matter how clean and dry its kept. Does the rock substrate eliminate mold /mildew ? How often to rknse it rtc.

    * would a pladurium (spelling) eliminate wastes and prevent mold / mildew/ mites ?


    • avatar

      Hi Debbie,

      Sorry for the delay…I emailed earlier.

      Even in ideal habitats, very few of the tads survive until adulthood; however, lawn cutting etc are major causes of mortality, along with insecticides, etc. As to captive vs wild, no way to predict….toads commonly live into their 20’s in each situation, benefits and risks in both situations. You can induce activity by allowing small crickets, sow bugs etc to hide in the terrarium; toads will hunt as needed. Many slow down in winter, even if kept warm – cool nighttime temps in home may also affect them.

      Multi Vitamin supplements can help, but vet attention may be needed if a severe deficiency is present. I use Zoo Med’s product. A separate calcium supplement is also advisable. Increasing dietary variety may help…earthworms are ideal as a base of the diet; avoid mealworms. I have some related articles but blog is still giving us some problems…will send links soon.

      Sphagnum moss inhibits mold growth somewhat, as pH is low..discarding top layer on occasion can help. Or try a rinseable moss mat.. – just be sure to add a cave with some damp paper towels as a shelter. Dead leaves also work well, but will decay if too damp. A light spray in AM is all that’s needed in most situations, provided water is available (be sure to De-chlorinate water used in bowl and spray bottle). The mites are harmless, nearly impossible to keep out in most cases (arrive on food, substrate etc as eggs) and do not spread out of the terrarium as far as I’ve seen.

      Re releasing…they do fine, instincts remain intact, They do establish territories (good thought – most ignore that!) but do not seem to attempt to return to former habitats, as will bullfrogs and some others. However, they need time to find a hibernation site…too late in year to release now – unless perhaps you are in Hawaii or Key West – but they are not native there!

      Please let me know if you need more info, Frank

  5. avatar

    3. Letting an adult toad go in a yard that has shade and a small creek sounds happier but would they survive after being kept as a pet for 2 years ?

    Would they try to return to where they were born ?

  6. avatar

    Thank you for your prompt response…its wonderful to have a real person to talk to and learn more about them. Would it be dangerous to spray liquid reptile / amphibian vitamins in their soaking tub, or directly onto the toad ?

    I keep thinking theyd have more to do and places to explore etc if I let them go, but every time I see them cuddled up together, I think they’re so cute, then I’m tempted to keep them…
    I tell myself “you cant keep everything that’s cute inside the house – -or else I’d have llammas and ponies etc in the house … lol.

    Do they need real dirt to hibernate in in the winter ? One definitely is ready to hibernate, and one isnt yet… I’m tempted to try the washable mat to see how that goes…

    What do you suggest for hibernating ? Would your cave and damp papertowel idea work ? If so, how often would I change it / since it would disturb the toads, but I dont want them to get red leg or sores etc.

    • avatar

      Hi Debbie,

      My pleasure, glad to be of some help.

      Sprayed vits do not work as well as when used on food, as far as we know. vets sometimes do use medications that are absorbed by the skin, but no real guidelines re sprays. Once weekl would not do any harm.

      It’s good to keep them busy in captivity…hunting and such, but in the wild they do not move about w/o reason…they eat constantly, so as to store fat for winter, etc. But t’s not in their interests, survival wise – to move about more than necessary. Once they become more alert in spring, you can diversify tank, get a larger enclosure, etc, but no need to be too concerned.

      True hibernation…dormancy at 36-40 F or so, is difficult and risky in captivity, Best to keep at room temp…they will remain somewhat active, perhaps eat, but usually do not lose much weight (able to adjust metabolism to food availability, temp, etc.
      Keep in mind also that wild caught toads will have an assortment of parasites…most do no harm when the toad is healthy, but if the immune system weakens, their effect can become serious. We do not know all that much about amphib disease, etc., ..hard to diagnose a problem via external behavior.

      Best. Frank

  7. avatar

    Ps I think I got mites ehen I tried to supply “food” for worms and sow bugs inside the tank – bad idea…

    I was trying to create a self sustaining eco-system / feeding system inside the tank but it wasnt a good idea. : )

  8. avatar

    Sorry to keep adding on..

    Could we please see a photo of the toad exibit that you created, to get some ideas of ways to set up a toad environment ? Mine pretty much uprooted all of the plants, so I would have to start over, maybe build a container they csnt get into…

    That reminds me – do you suggest boilung the soil before using it in their tank ? Thanks for your help.

    Nobody else in real life wants to talk about toads… lol

    • avatar

      Hi Debbie,

      Please write in as often as you’d like…great comments that will be helpful to others as well. And as you can see in this article, I’ve been a this for some time!…toads of all kinds are among my favorite creatures.

      Unfortunately I don’t have any photos near at hand that would be of use to you. For a planted tank, use the largest terrarium possible , a layer of aquarium gravel at bottom (drainage) then several inches of top soil (no need to treat outdoor soil if from pesticide-free area, or use bagged if you have concerns); top with leaf litter and sphagnum moss; remove/replace upper layer every so often. Use plants with strong root systems and low-light requirements..pothos, snake plants, cast-iron plants, Chinese evergreens (all common house plants). Once they root, usually withstand toads. Or you can leave in pots, and bury pot within soil. Installing a partially buried cave , broken flower pot etc may discourage toads from digging under plants. Don’t put heavy rocks on surface, lest they dig below and become crushed. For light, use a low-output UVB bulb …works for plants, and safe for toads (a it of UVB ok, too much can harm their eyes.

      Please let me know how all goes, best, Frank

  9. avatar

    Hi again – thank you so much for your help and information…

    I especially loved reading about your interesting and enviable career and the wide variety of animals you’ve been lucky enough to have experience with.

    Our family also had a managerie when we were young, but not nearly as extensive as yours…

    You’re the only other person I’ve “met” who also had a caimen as one of their childhood pets… Ours arrived as a small baby – the sounds he made were so cute. When he outgrew our tank, friends with a large tank raised him until he was too big, then they gave him to a zoo.

    Thank you so much for the links…

    Ps my one toad always buries herself for the winter… I usually drizzle dechlorinated water on the soil once in a while, worried she could dehydrate otherwise… I assumed this might be good practice since if she were outside, she would have occasional rain and snow melt helping her stay moist…

    Any suggestion how much water + how often would be appropriate ?

    • avatar

      Hi Debbie,

      Thanks for the kind words, much appreciated;…yes, I’ve been very lucky.

      Caimans and young gators are making a comeback in the trade..only now, zoos won’t take them. We’ve found them in the Bronx River and Central Park Reservoir!

      Should be fine just to be sure soil around the toad is slightly moist; they are very effective at conserving water (the “urine” they sometimes eject when grabbed is actually stored water), Their skin does not give up much; absorption is mainly from the chest area, so be sure to hit soil near there.

      Enjoy, best, Frank

  10. avatar

    I forgot to ask if it might be safe (and healthy) to feed a guppy

    (or other easily purchased and bred small fish) once in a while ?

    Would that help with calcium uptake ?


  11. avatar

    Would it be safe (and healthy) to feed a guppy (or other easily purchased and bred small fish) once in a while ?

    Would that help with calcium uptake ?

    .thanks for your help.

    • avatar

      Hi Debbie,

      They are a good Ca source for many frogs, but American Toads do not consume vertebrates in the wild, as far as we know. I’ve never tried, and cannot be sure if it would digest bones; best to stick to hi-CA inverts, such as sow bugs, earthworms, and to use supplements,

      Best, Frank

  12. avatar

    Hi Frank. Touching base again after a few months. I initially contacted concerning my rescued painted turtle. All I’d well as the turtle has grown another inch or so (7-8 by now). I decided for 2 canister filters, lessened the gravel.

    I find that with filter maintenance and water changes I get foul slightly cloudy water that I believe is bacterial overgrowth. I rinse the sponges and ceramic discs in aquarium water to lessen the shock to established bacteria. My water change varies from 50+ percent if the water is grundgy. I’ve managed to keep clean water except for my cleaning chore. What do you think ?


    • avatar

      Hi Rob,

      As long as you have gravel in the tank, water quality will be a problem….minute particles and invisible wastes lodge there. Anaerobic bacteria take hold, as water does nor circulate through the bed unless you have an undergravel filter, which adds to the [problem. Using a siphon-based gravel washer will help, but that can be time consuming and not always effective. By using bare bottomed tanks, and feeding outside of the aquarium, I’ve never had to use more than a single filter per tank.You can wash sponges thoroughly with clean water…aerobic bacteria remaining on cannister walls and in other media will quickly re-seed the sponge. Best, Frank

  13. avatar

    Hi for american toads -since they tend to go to the bathroom in their water, would it work to have apx 1-2 gallons of water for them to swim in, that has a “turtle” water filter, and turtle water heater in it ?
    (Rather than replacing a small soaking dish of water daily ? )

    • avatar

      Hi Debbie

      Good idea, but they don’t enter large bodies of water other than when breeding…poor swimmers; would tend to avoid a large pool; also, ammonia is not always removed effectively by filters – it can be done, but takes some fine-tuning and must be monitored. Daily changes much more effective for most amphibs. Best, Frank

  14. avatar

    (I meant shallow water with very easy ramps in and out)

  15. avatar

    Thank you.

  16. avatar

    Hi Frank – Thanks for your prompt reply.

    I understand –
    I was intrigued by the toads in the youtube video – “toads wild night at the pond” –
    It looked like they were having fun swimming and getting lots of exercise,
    (Understanding that it was breeding season and they were also males trying to be “top dog” etc.)

    I was hoping it would be a way to provide them with exercise and more to do in captivity.
    I was hoping with a good filter and plants in the water that it might be feasable…

    I guess even if I could get the ammonia situation controlled, they may never use it except for breeding time,
    And I really dont want to breed them…
    Thanks for your help.

    • avatar

      Hi Debbie..it’s easy to see why you’d think that – male toads are unbelievably “enthusiastic” during the breeding season! They outnumber females, and need to remain clasped to a female with the front arms (called amplexus) until she lays the eggs, which are fertilized as they are deposited. Other males swarm pairs in amplexus, trying to dislodge each other…sometimes drowning the female in the process; they will also grab onto floating tennis balls, slow moving fish, one’s hand and each other!

      They gen do not breed unless subjected to a hibernation period, although females sometimes develop eggs…you’ll notice swelling, perhaps a reluctance to feed; oxytosin administered by a vet causes release of the eggs.

      Allowing insects to hide within the tank is a good way to induce hunting…sowbugs work especially well, and are useful scavengers. Please see this article.

      Enjoy, best Frank

  17. avatar

    Someone suggested a ceramic infra-red heater for american toads – Would that dry them out, or just help them feel comfortable ?

    I never see my toads blink, and I’m concerned that their eyeballs will get too dry, and wonder if its
    Normal, or if its a sign of something wrong…

    They *do* blink if a cricket crawls on them, and if I pick them up, and when they eat.
    But other than that, I see them not blinking at all.

    I realize they try to not blink much when hunting, but I never see them blink at all….

    • avatar

      Hi Debbie,

      Ceramics or any sort of heating unit will dry out substrate, but that can be managed by misting, etc…toads are resistant; conserve water wells within body.

      They have a “third eyelid” known as the nictitating membrane…it is not visible normally – sweeps across the eye when needed, then retracts; can sometimes be seen when inn use, but gen it disappears in less than a second. Semi aquatic frogs – bullfrogs, green frogs etc – keep it over the eye when underwater…it is transparent and acts like a “goggle”. You may see the eyes retract when the toads feed…movement helps push food down the throat. Best, Frank

  18. avatar

    Hi thanks for your reply.

    Do you recommend any type of heat source ( for any part of the year ) for american toads in captivity ?

    (If so, what is ghe best choice for them ) ?

    Or is it not needed ?

    The house temp. Tends to be 68 – 70 year round. If we decide to keep these 2 tosds, I’d like for them to be as comfortable / happy as possible.

  19. avatar

    Thank you for sharing your knowledge and helping everyone with their animals.

    How did you prevent mold and mildew, when raising sowbugs ?

    I had one attempt but overwatered them ( outside).

    • avatar

      Hi Debbie..I never had problems, but much depends on what type of mold etc becomes established. I provided a moist cave type retreat, and misted the dead leaves each day or 2. Sphagnum moss repels most mold/mildew, due to its low pH, and works well as a substrate for sowbugs and toads best, Frank

  20. avatar

    Thank you. I may try again – Since cold weather has already set in already, I would need to purchase a group of them, or find a donation starter group.

    Do you prefer the large orange type, or small grey type for american toads ?

    ( I apologise – I’m sure so many questions must make you crazy… : )

  21. avatar

    Thank you very much.

  22. avatar

    Do you keep toads inside the house ? Or in a seperate building ? The reason I’m asking, is because when I put leaves and sowbugs in my toad tank, I had lots of mites and tiny fungus gnats show up …

    To be fair, I was also putting banana peel etc (tiny amounts) in the firt to try to feed worms) that idea was not workable- but does feeding the sowbugs alone (inside the toad tank) cause mites and fungus gnats to flourish ? – the gnsts would show up in any water spots on the bathroom sink and drown there.

    • avatar


      Tiny white mites are hard to avoid, as the eggs even seem to survive processing and can arrive via packaged substrates; leaf litter would be more likely to hold them, however, Most are harmless and do not leave the tank (please see this article); best to check though litter to be sure you are not introducing other more mobile creatures, such as centipedes, spiders. Sowbugs can also be reared separately..please see here.

      Gnats and, especially, fruit flies appear as if by magic…easy to see how the concept of spontaneous generation arose long ago! It’s generally fruit/sweets that draws the adults, as eggs of most species are not deposited in leaf litter, etc. You can lure them to fly paper coated with a bit of fruit juice, but there’s always the chance that you’ll be attracting new ones to the area. No need to put fruit in with the sowbugs,,,..if substrate is moist, they can be fed tropical fish food flakes, coffee grinds. A bit of fruit/veg is good on occasion…hiding below leaves, or under a small shelter or cave may discourage flies. Please let me know if you need anything, enjoy, Frank

  23. avatar

    Hi! My toad (bufo americanus) seems to be bored, anything I can do?

  24. avatar

    I have no doubt that my bullfrogs are intelligent; they learn things all the time. At the risk of sounding like a nut, I have one frog that seems to communicate with me sometimes. I’ve seen him swipe his left ear now and then but a few nights ago, he was staring very intently at me. He swiped his left ear, then yawned, then swiped his left ear, then yawn, paused, then did the same a third time. All the while staring right at me. He then seemed little agitated and did it twice more. Was he telling me something?

    • avatar

      Thanks…I’ve seen bullfrogs adjust to new situations, and when kept long term they come to associate people with food; several at a local pond orient towards I and my nephew when we arrive, as we often toss crickets to them…in the past they took off when we cam e near.

      Several frogs and many lizards communicate with hand signals, a process known as semaphoring. Captive lizards will do this when owners appear..generally it’s a male declaring his territory, etc. Bullfrogs are not known to use this in the wild, so would be unlikely to do so in captivity…but keep watching them and take notes, as they are very complex creatures, Enjoy, Frank

  25. avatar

    Thanks for your reply. I’ve never seen Igor and Jack signaling to each other. Their communication is far more crude than that (posturing, wrestling, etc.) and it’s always over territory in the tank. I agree that if they don’t “speak” in the wild, they’re not going to develop the mental capacity to do it in one generation. From my experience, bullfrogs are smarter than most people give them credit for. Jack doesn’t care much for people but Igor is very interactive, knows where his food comes from, and learns new routines easily. I have a big tank full of mud in my kitchen and I have a 360 view of what my little buddies are doing all the time. My relatives think I’m a bit eccentric haha!

    • avatar

      Hi…that’s the way to learn – have them always in view! One of the Bx Zoo’s early curators, Lee Crandall, had a cage built into the wall over his desk, and would house there whatever small mammal he was interested in at the time…his “Wild mammals in captivity” is a classic, and he credits frequent observation as vital to much of what he accomplished. Bullfrogs do indeed show different personalities, and we have much to learn about them..keep it up, and please keep me posted, best, frank

  26. avatar

    Hello Mr.Indiviglio, It’s been fantastic to read your articles! I have an aquarium with two toads in it that I saved from a mud puddle before it dried-up two summers ago as tadpoles. Previously my boyfriend and I had kept two other wild toads for roughly two years that we caught when they were an inch long. Speaking on the topic of the intelligence and also sweet-nature of toads, when one of our previous toads drowned mysteriously in the shallow pebble-filled water bowl, his (/her) tank-mate sat on the stone by the bowl for three full days just looking at it. He had never done that before, and it was obvious that he understood that was the place his friend died. It was truly heartbreaking. Soon he was refusing to eat and became weak. It became apparent he was going to mourn himself to death, so I carried him outside and set him free… I sure hope this gave his life some joy again and that he was okay. In this current pairing of toads, one is much smaller than the other and often seems sickly, keeping his chin on the ground, and not coming up to the glass when I talk to them. He also has a white streak under each eye that lessens and goes back to the normal coloration when he looks healthier. The larger toad displays heart-warming behavior, sitting right up against the little one when he’s not feeling well; normally they do not hang-out that close together. (I have not found any answers to why one is sickly and smaller, does it seem like it may be a vitamin deficiency? I feed them larva from the wood pile, moths collected from around lights, and any bugs I find in the dirt of my garden which is free from chemicals. Just recently I purchased meal-worms to breed and feed them, not having yet read that you do not recommend them. If not for the price, diet, and precise care involved, I would have gotten silkworms instead. I am, however, dusting the meal-worms with calcium and ground people-vitamins. Do you have any clue what might be wrong with my one toad, and do think what I’m feeding them is good enough?) …A bit more information, in case it makes a difference: I once witnessed the larger toad mating the smaller one in the water bowl. I do not remember if it was right after winter, but I have never noticed them being to much less active or hungry in the winter because our house stays ridiculously hot in the winter. I have also never noticed any other mating behaviors like vocalizations. Also, the symptoms started long before this mating. The small one is darker and he never gained the bright colors and patterns the larger one did when they were about a year old. Thank you ever so much for your help. I also really loved and appreciated your unique article on the habitat and care of dark fishing spiders. -Meliane

    • avatar

      Hi Melanie,

      Thanks for the kind words, much appreciated.

      Usually toads that are fed wild-caught insects do not suffer the deficiency mentioned in my earlier response…however, it is possible so try the supplements. Avoid mealworms esp. if an animal is ill..hard to digest, lots of chitin in exoskeleton.

      There are many other illnesses etc which can be involved, and we do not unfortunately know all that much about treatment. All wild toads will have parasites…some of these cause no harm when all is well, but can become dangerous if there are other health problems, or if numbers build up.

      best regards, Frank

  27. avatar

    P.S. Two things I thought of just now: The little toad, lately, has had trouble catching food… He looks like he is snapping at the bugs, but not sticking out his tongue. He is still able to eat, but not nearly as much as the larger toad. The other thing, is that after reading that you recommend them so highly I am going to try harder to get them to eat little earthworms. I had tried that last year, with very small worms, but they pulled them out of their mouths. Thanks again!

    • avatar

      Hi Melanie,

      There is a condition known as short-tongue syndrome, usually related to a Vit A deficiency but not well-studied. Try the earthworms, and powder all meals with a Vitamin supplement and Calcium. Some earthworm species are rejected due to unpleasant secretions…these often have dark rings about the body…those sold by stores/online as “red wigglers” are usually taken. Please see this article and let me know if you need more info, best frank

About Frank Indiviglio

Read other posts by

Being born with a deep interest in animals might seem unfortunate for a native Bronxite , but my family encouraged my interest and the menagerie that sprung from it. Jobs with pet stores and importers had me caring for a fantastic assortment of reptiles and amphibians. After a detour as a lawyer, I was hired as a Bronx Zoo animal keeper and was soon caring for gharials, goliath frogs, king cobras and everything in-between. Research has taken me in pursuit of anacondas, Orinoco crocodiles and other animals in locales ranging from Venezuela’s llanos to Tortuguero’s beaches. Now, after 20+ years with the Bronx Zoo, I am a consultant for several zoos and museums. I have spent time in Japan, and often exchange ideas with zoologists there. I have written books on salamanders, geckos and other “herps”, discussed reptile-keeping on television and presented papers at conferences. A Master’s Degree in biology has led to teaching opportunities. My work puts me in contact with thousands of hobbyists keeping an array of pets. Without fail, I have learned much from them and hope, dear readers, that you will be generous in sharing your thoughts on this blog and web site. For a complete biography of my experience click here.
Scroll To Top