Vacation feeders and “toys” for turtles…reptile care supplies certainly have come a long way since I started on my pet care and zoo-keeping career! Today I’d like to highlight two new automatic feeders designed especially for turtles (I believe both will be useful for African Clawed Frogs, Mexican Axolotls, newts and larger fishes as well). Exo Terra’s Automatic Feeder represents a great step forward in turtle care, allowing for 4 daily feedings of different foods over an extended period of time. The Zoo Med Floating Turtle Feeder, while not technically a “toy”, will keep you and your turtles entertained. Similar to behavioral enrichment tools and activities I employed at the Bronx Zoo, this feeder forces turtles to “work” for their meals, thereby encouraging activity and foraging behaviors. Read More »
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In Part I of this article, we discussed the role played by plants in the diets of popular North American “basking” turtles such as Red-Eared and Yellow-Bellied Sliders, Map, Red-Bellied and Chicken Turtles, and Cooters.
Useful Plants and Vegetables
As your turtles grow out of the hatchling stage, I suggest offering dandelion, bok choy, kale, mustard and collared greens, romaine, endive and vegetables such as shredded yams, carrots, and squash.
Prolific aquatic plants such as Elodea, Anachris, Watersprite, Duckweed, Water Hyacinth and various underwater grasses (i.e. Vallisneria), easily reared in outdoor tubs or ponds, are also eagerly accepted by many turtles. Keep a few guppies or minnows in your water garden to consume mosquito larvae, or net the larvae as food for fishes, newts and other aquatic pets. Read More »
Some of the most popular semi-aquatic (or “basking”) pet turtles, such as Red-Eared and Yellow-Bellied Sliders, Map Turtles, Cooters and Chicken Turtles, eagerly accept fish and other animal-based foods – so eagerly, in fact, that it is easy to forget that most are omnivorous, and not carnivorous, by nature.
Natural Dietary Shifts
In the wild, the world’s most popular pet turtle, the Red-Eared Slider, starts life as a meat-eater but consumes ever more aquatic plants as it matures. By adulthood, vegetation forms the bulk of the diet, although this varies a bit among populations (Red-Eared Sliders are, after all, the most adaptable of all turtles, with introduced populations thriving on every continent save Antarctica!). The same applies to the various Painted Turtles (Eastern, Midland, Southern, Western), the Chicken Turtle and the Cooters – as they mature, over 90% of the diet may be comprised of plants.
Map Turtles vary by species and population as regards their diet – most consume more plants as they mature, but tend to remain largely carnivorous. Some Map Turtles exhibit unique strategies. For example, female Barbour’s Map Turtles (Graptemys barbouri) are specialized predators of crayfishes, clams and snails, while the much smaller males take insects, carrion and plants.
Many commercial Aquatic Turtle Diets provide excellent nutrition and can serve as a dietary mainstay, and there is some evidence that diet of Reptomin and Freeze Dried Krill meets all the nutritional needs of several species.
However, I’ve always found it preferable to include a good amount of whole, natural foods in turtle diets, especially where less well-studied species are concerned. The shift from animal-based to plant-based foods is a very definite phenomenon in nature, and may very well hold the key to captive longevity and reproduction for some types of turtles.
An interesting study of the diets of wild Red-Eared Sliders and River Cooters is posted here.
Even baby Sliders will take greens, as this YouTube video shows.
Southern Painted Turtle image referenced from wikipedia and originally posted by Aka