Home | Lizards | Leopard Gecko Shedding Concerns – Retained Eyelid Lining

Leopard Gecko Shedding Concerns – Retained Eyelid Lining

Hello, Frank Indiviglio here. After shedding, leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) sometimes exhibit a condition that superficially resembles what snake owners know as “retained eye caps”. However, the structure of a leopard gecko’s eye, and that of the closely related banded and fat-tailed geckos, is nothing like that of a snake’s, and problems following shedding must be addressed in a very different manner.

Leopard Gecko Eye Structure

Leopard GeckoLeopard, banded and fat-tailed geckos are classified in the gecko subfamily Eublepharinae, and differ from all other geckos in having movable eyelids. In fact, the genus name, Eublepharis, means “true eye lids”. The eyes of all other species in the family Gekkonidae are covered by a transparent cap, or spectacle, which is fused to the eyelids (like snakes, they cannot blink their eyes).

The eyelids of leopard geckos and their relatives are lined with a thin layer of skin. This eyelid liner is replaced along with the rest of the gecko’s skin when shedding occurs. However, if conditions are too dry in the terrarium, the eyelid lining may stick to the lid and be retained after shedding. This will lead to an irritation. Eventually, an infection will set in and cause the eye to swell.

Diagnosis and Treatment

The retained skin is thin but visible, so check your gecko carefully after it sheds. Geckos so affected will also blink a great deal, and may rub the area.

While experienced hobbyists may be able to remove retained eye caps (brille) from pet snakes, retained eyelid liners are an entirely different matter. This problem must be attended to by an experienced veterinarian only.

Avoiding Problems: Humidity and Diet

An overly-dry environment seems to be the main factor leading to retained eyelid liners. Although geckos are native to quite arid habitats, like all desert animals they are able to find moist retreats, usually below ground, when necessary. It is easy to overlook this when keeping desert animals. For years zoos kept Gila monsters, native to one of the driest places on earth, in bone-dry exhibits. Field research showed, however, that these lizards actually spend 90% of their time in burrows where humidity levels are quite high.

Shedding aids are useful for lizards of all types, especially desert-adapted species.

Low Vitamin A levels have also been implicated in gecko shedding problems. Be sure to provide your lizard with a varied diet and appropriate vitamin/mineral supplements. Please write in if you need detailed advice on feeding your gecko.

Further Reading

Please see my book Leopard Geckos and the article Breeding Leopard Geckos for further information on care and natural history.

Please write in with your questions and comments. Thanks, until next time, Frank Indiviglio.

56 comments

  1. avatar

    Hello,
    My leopard gecko has had unshed skin on her toes for possibly a year now. I was wondering if I could still get rid of that skin using the shedding aids you mentioned, or if it’s now too difficult to remove without the help of a vet.

  2. avatar

    Hello Ron, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks for your interest in our blog. I suggest a vet – often after that length of time, the old skin constricts blood flow to the toe, causing necrosis. The toes sometimes fall off, or may need to be amputated. Geckos can survive this, but infections/fungus can also take hold beneath the skin…best to have a vet check the animal. Please let me know how all goes, and we can discuss possibly preventing this in the future.

    Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  3. avatar

    I rescued a-leopard gecko . It has no eyes . We hand fed it at first now he eats on his own. He won’t eat crickets of any kind worms in a can and wax worms are all he will take .we use vitamin powder and give him plenty of fresh water . He’s now even affectionate in a way . Is there any thing else he needs to be healthy and happy ?

  4. avatar

    Hello Dawn, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks for your interest in our blog and my compliments on your efforts. Continue to try and tempt the lizard to eat a wider variety of foods, as waxworms alone are not suitable long term. Keep him hungry for awhile to encourage this…geckos usually have plenty of fat stored in the tail, so fasts of a week or more are of no concern. Please check this article for further info. Since he’s on a limited diet, it would be best to alternate between several supplements for now, i.e. Reptivite w/D3 and Reptocal.

    Please bear in mind that leopard geckos will not usually drink from a bowl, but rather lap water from rocks and the aquarium’s glass when theses are misted.

    They do not need a UVB light source, but be sure to provide a warm spot of 85F or so, with a background temperature of 74-78 F and a slight dip at night.

    Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  5. avatar

    when my gecko sheds, skin gets stuck on his toes. Should i try to get it off?I know his toes are extremely delicate, but I’ve been told the skin may cause blood to not flow to his toes, and they fall of. I don’t want that!!! what should i do about this? the more he sheds, the more skin on his toes.

  6. avatar

    Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.

    Thanks for your interest. Unshed skin can constrict the toes, but this takes some time to occur. Try softening the skin with a shedding aid (or a bit of olive oil) and then see if you can gently peel it back without pulling too hard. If it appears that there are several layers of skin present and it will not slide off, it would be best to see a vet. Please let me know if you need help in locating a reptile-experienced veterinarian.

    Also, set up a cave or hide box and keep it ½ filled with damp sphagnum moss. Geckos will often seek damp areas before shedding, in order to loosen the old skin.

    Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  7. avatar

    I have an albino gecko who just shed, but his eyes are completely covered. He also had scabs on his mouth which I treated with hydrogen peroxide and antibiotic ointment and that has resolved, however the eyes are not fixing. I have been soaking him twice daily and put vaseline on his eyes as I was told to do by a pet store near me. I live in an area with no herp vets so I am just following books and pet store people. He is not eating at all.

  8. avatar

    Hello Amy

    Thanks for your interest and sorry for your troubles. Unfortunately, this is not something you can treat at home. Topical antibiotics may have helped the skin condition, but scabs etc. may indicate an internal bacterial or other infection, which must be treated by medications prescribed by a veterinarian. The fact that the animal is not eating supports this. The eye condition may be retained eyelids, or infection related. Either way, it will not resolve with vaseline. Soaking is likely stressful, and may worsen the condition if the animal becomes too chilled, as its immune system is depressed now. If you’d like, please let me know what state you are in. I’ll try to find some instate vets for you..even if they are not near, one may be able to recommend someone closer.
    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  9. avatar

    My leopard gecko recently had eye issues. When I checked on him after shedding I noticed his left eye appeared to be covered in dried blood. I took him straight to a local vet who identified an ulcer and prescribed antibiotic eye drops 3 times a day. A week later the eye drops have definitely had a positive effect. The eye is clear again and no sign of any blood. The ulcer seems to have healed nicely.

    However I’m worried because the eye now looks quite different to his healthy right eye. The eye is much flatter and no longer has the clear dome covering.

    I’m worried he has permanent damage to his eye now. Does it sound as though the actual cornea is damaged?

  10. avatar

    Hello Matt

    Thanks for your interest. Infection is the main concern, so you have taken the right steps. Even with an exam, it’s often difficult to determine if the infection, even though healed, caused structural damage. I have noticed changes similar to what you described in a variety of lizards after treatment. As long as the unfection is gone, the lizards should get along fine, whether he has poor or even no vision in one eye. You’ll need to watch it closely after shedding, however, and have the eye checked again at that time if you notice anything unusual.

    Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.

    Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

  11. avatar

    Dear Frank,
    I have a female leopard gecko that I have had for seven yrs. She was fully patterned when I bought her so I’m guessing she may be < 10 yrs. But over the last year she has lost her eyesight without any complications involved. I had a vet tell me she has lens thickening. I believe she sees very little but has adapted to tweezer feeding. But about three wks ago I took her in because she wasn't swallowing her food well. She was eager to grad it but seemed to have trouble swallowing. They gave her a steroid and antibiotic shot but it hasn't really gotten better. If I don't place the cricket or worm almost completely in her mouth she shakes and drops it. Any ideas or is this possibly just the end stages of her life?

  12. avatar

    Hello,

    Aging could very well be involved, esp considering the eyesight problem. They can reach their teens, and a few have approached 30, but 10 is well on in years, and yours may be older than that. Similar symptoms (swallowing) in frogs and toads have been linked to Vitamin A deficiencies, but not much is known and treatment is not well-established; not sure if it has been tried with lizards. I can refer you to a vet who has done work in this area, and who could likely consult with your vet via phone (he is in Az) but the treatment may be more stressful that continuing to feed as you have been.

    Best regards, Frank

  13. avatar

    Hello again! My gecko shed today, using the water dish as it has in the past, but I noticed afterward that a portion of the tail downward to the tip was shiny and slimey. A few pieces of skin remained attached to the segment of the tail where the slimey texture started.

    A while later, I notice the gecko was picking at that remaining skin, so I moved him to his moist hide. Upon checking him again, I noticed he was actually biting his tail, with the tail laid across his mouth – upon releasing, this left a broad indentation on the tail.

    Later still, I noticed the gecko had continued to tear at the tail, where the skin bits remained, and the area was now pinkish raw, and bleeding a bit. There is no remaining shedding skin, but he still goes after the tail every now and then.

    How can I best clean up and care for the raw wound? Is antiseptic (hydrogen peroxide) or antibiotic (neosporin) and a wrap (paper tape) appropriate? There are no vets open today, unforunately, and I want to act as soon as I can.

  14. avatar

    Hello,

    Neosporin or peroxide is fine, neosporin stronger, but you don;t want the lizard to ingest much. Perhaps restrain it from biting for 10 min or so if need be. It will likely bits at a bandage, and tape is tough on the skin. Check with a vet when possible, so that infection does not set in. In future, best to remove remaining skin with help of the shedding aids linked in this article (tail skin comes off fairly easily by hand, toes and eyelids require some experience). Good luck, pl keep me posted, Frank

  15. avatar

    I washed the wound with warm water and hydrogen peroxide and bandaged ot, which he promptly took off.

    The tip of the tail now resembles thread from being crushed in its mouth. He’s still gnawing at it.

    Any idea why this region of the tail remains slimey? I never saw that in previous sheds.

  16. avatar

    Hello,

    No way to tell w/o an exam; some fungal/bacterial infections may give that appearance; perhaps something had been incubating prior to the shed. Put the animal on paper towels to minimize substrate sticking etc.and continue Hy peroxide rinses. I have had reports of various lizards doing this after an injury. If an emergency vet clinic is avail, perhaps they can remove a section of the tail and securely bandage. if not, it may continue for a time. The damaged area may fall off, or if not will be removed by the vet. Other than distracting the lizard, not much you can do at home, unfortunately.

    Best, Frank

  17. avatar

    I was checking out my gecko today and I noticed that when he looks into the light, his eye gets milky white. I can’t tell if it remains milky white while in the dark due to poor visibility. Is this a sort of second eye lid or does he have shed skin stuck in it? When he closes his eyes, I can see the film bulge out a bit rendering him unable to fully blink. I want to make sure his eye sit won’t be affected. I cannot afford to bring him to a vet because I’m only a teenager and my parent’s don’t want to pay the bill for bringing him in. If there is a problem with his eyes, what (if anything) can I do to fix it? The other question I have is when does a gecko reach adult-hood? I have had mine in my possession for about half a year and I got him from a friend who had him for a couple months prior to me having him (I think). Please let me know as soon as possible because I want to make sure he is healthy. Thanks!

  18. avatar

    Hello Chad,

    Unfortunately, it’s difficult to determine whether an unshed eyelid covering or another problem is involved; a vet visit is really the only way to be sure. Geckos sometimes develop fat deposits in the eye due to a diet too high in fatty foods, esp. pinkies and waxworms. It may clear up with a better diet. An unshed lid covering, however, needs to be addressed by a vet. Please see this article (2 Parts) and write back with some details concerning diet and also tempertaure.

    Maturity varies a bit with diet, growth rate and by sex, but takes at least 1 year. This article describes how to differentiate the sexes once maturity is reached.

    Best, Frank

  19. avatar

    I have just recently bought gut loaded crickets from a local petco but before that I fed him meal worms and he ate them frequently but as of the last month or so he has eaten less and less. I had my dad take a picture of him so you can accurately assess what I should do. As for temperature, the aquarium I keep him in feels too cold and I have been using a heating lamp but it doesn’t feel as though its working. I will try to buy a heating mat to put under the cage when I get the chance to. His Hemipene bulges are clearly visible at the base of his tail and his stripes that he had as a baby are nearly gone but he isn’t more than a year old (as far as I know). What is the best way to get the pictures my dad took to you? Another thing I have noticed is a big change in his behavior. Up until very recently, he would never allow me to handle him; he would struggle and try to bite me. But as of yesterday he doesn’t struggle (very much) and he will not try to bite. He just sits on my hands and crawls around a little bit. I’m not sure if he is acting this way just because I have had him for a little over 6 months now or not. But as I said earlier, I can’t afford to bring him to the vet, its too expensive for me to pay for and my parent’s aren’t willing to help.

  20. avatar

    Hello Chad,

    You’ll need to monitor the heat with a thermometer..how it feels to us is not at all reliable. Teh warmest side of the terrarium should be 85-90F, the cooler 75F or so. It can drop to 70 at night. Heat pads are okay as a supplementary heat source, but they do little to heat the air. Best to use incandescent bulbs; start with 50 watt and check frequently. At night, a red/black bulb can be used if house temps go below 70F.

    Please check the diet article I linked last time – crickets and mealworms alone are not an ideal diet. Mealworms should be used sparingly if at all. You can keep crickets and feed for several days to improve their nutritional value (let me know if you need details). Calcium and vitamin mineral supplements are also necessary – gut loading alone is not sufficient.

    Reduced feeding and lethargy when handling can be due to low temperatures or an intestinal blockage (mealworm-heavy diets have been linked to this). Unfortunately, a photo would not enable me to diagnose the problem. There really is no way to treat the eye or diagnose whether a blockage is present without a vet exam.

    Best regards, Frank

  21. avatar

    My African fat tailed gecko has been having shedding problems with his head. His eyes have what looks like thin dark skin covering them, and whiteness around his eyes, like lids (but I don’t think he has lids). Also, all around his mouth the skin seems rock hard. He can’t see to catch crickets and does not want to eat hand fed meal worms, and is losing a lot of weight. He uses a homemade “reptile sauna” for moisture, has a UVB light, a regular 60 watt light bulb for heat and an under tank heater. I’ve taken him to a vet twice since April. The first time he was de-wormed and given an antibiotic to take by mouth and another for his eyes. He recovered, but then the eye issue returned a few months later, as well as the new issue with his mouth. The vet did nothing this last time except give more oral antibiotic and said to keep using the antibiotic eye med. He is very slightly improving, but is losing weight. What can we do?

  22. avatar

    Hi Julie,

    The eyelids are fused and therefore not obvious (as in snakes); retained eyelid linings are difficult to spot but I’m assuming your vet checked. Shedding aids or a bit of olive oil can be used to loosen dry skin. Eye infections, if that is the problem, can be difficult, so it is best to continue the drops;

    Weight loss and loss of appetite is cause for concern but can be linked to any number of problems; infections, parasites or an intestinal blockage, for example. A radiograph will reveal if a blockage is present.

    What are your daytime/night temps…under-tank heaters may do little to warm the air, so perhaps it is dropping too low at night?

    I can try to direct you to a local vet for a second opinion if you wish. Best, Frank

  23. avatar

    How do i get shed skin of the top of my leopard gecko’s tail.

  24. avatar

    Hi Alex,

    Some olive oil or a commercial shedding aid will loosen the skin so that you can slide it off by hand. Check the toes as well. Best, Frank

  25. avatar

    Thanks. I soaked her for 15 min earlier, got most of it off but now there is some in the creases of her tail. How would i get that off?

  26. avatar

    Olive oil or shedding aids should work well, Best, Frank

  27. avatar

    What would i use to rub it off with? I don’t want to hurt her.

  28. avatar

    Rub some oil, etc. on your fingers, or a latex glove…this should allow you to gently ease the skin off,

    Best, Frank

  29. avatar

    that just pissed her off it didnt come off.

  30. avatar

    Hello Alex,

    Try leaving the lubricant on for 15 minutes or so, then attempt to remove the skin again; you may need to repeat, no immediate health risks, you can take your time. Lizards will always resent being handled in this manner, no way around that. Best, Frank

  31. avatar

    I am so glad I stumbled upon this post. My leopard gecko has recently had some problems shedding. I’ve had her for almost 6 years and she has never had problems before, but the last 2 sheds she has had problems shedding around her snout, eyes, and this last time, her feet and toes as well. I actually had 2 leopard geckos, but one (that ive had for 5 years) past away 2 weeks ago. she always had problems shedding, but never around her face area until her last few sheds. so now that my normally healthy one is having problems too, I got very nervous. especially when her eyes started looking like they do. your post and advice in previous comments helped A LOT. I went ahead and changed out her substrate and replaced it with paper towels… damp on one side of the tank, as well as soaked her in a shedding aid for 15 min. the skin finally broke on one eye, but the other is still covered. I will give her a break tonight and will try again tomorrow. if it doesn’t get better, I will take her to a vet. I’ve been told we don’t have a very good herp vet here in Memphis, TN, so if you have any recommendations, I would be very grateful. THANK you for sharing your knowledge and advice!!

  32. avatar

    Thanks for the kind words , Amanda. You’re doing everything right, yes best to see a vet if the eye situation does not change,

    please keep me posted, best Frank

  33. avatar

    My new Leopard gecko was shedding when I got it. After two weeks of not eating, I go concerned. She almost shed on her head but needed a little help. It totally revived it. It is very active and loves water. But she still isn’t eating, that I can see. We bought two geckos, and thinking the larger was getting all the food, I separated them. But now I’ve noticed that the gecko in question seems to be keeping its eyes half shut. I didn’t notice this right away, since she had half shed over them for so long. She appears to have little appetite, but she is fast, active, and seems fine otherwise…. except she is pencil thin with a wire thin tail. While the other gecko is growing rapidly and easily twice the width even though they were the same size a month ago. Any ideas?

  34. avatar

    Hi Andrea,

    It’s not possible to diagnose a health concern by those symptoms, unfortunately, as not-feeding is typical of most ailments. The this tail is especially troubling, as this indicates that the animal has used up it’s reserves, and will start to decline rapidly. Intestinal blockages – insect parts, sand etc. packed into the digestive tract – will stop a lizards from feeding but it will not show other signs of illness until it begins to weaken from lack of food; but that is just one (common) possibility. You’ll need to bring the animal to an experienced vet..please let me know if you need help in locating one. Best, Frank

  35. avatar

    After shedding my leopard geckos ridge on her top left eye was kind of pushed down, and flat. She cant fully open her eye bc of it. She got all of her shed off her head without my help. Is this normal?

  36. avatar

    Hello Cami,

    That’s not something that would normally occur…if it is not due to skin remaining there, an unrelated problem is likely present…infection, soft bones due to a Calcium deficiency, etc…no way to diagnose w/o a vet visit, however. Let me know if you need any help in locating a vet, Frank

  37. avatar
    Cami Montgomery

    I have a female juvenile leopard gecko and i am about to get a hatching leopard gecko and i was wondering if i could house them together

  38. avatar

    Hello Cami,

    It’s not a good idea…sometimes works out, but larger often stresses the smaller, out-competes for food etc even if there’s no outright aggression. best , Frank

  39. avatar

    My juvenile leo ALWAYS poops in her meal worm dish, why is that? And is there way i can change that? I have to clean it out every morning

  40. avatar

    Hello Cami,

    Once they choose a place it may be difficult to change the behavior…best to add another bowl for feeding. However, mealworms are not a good food item, should be used very sparingly, Please see this article and let me know if you need more info, best, Frank

  41. avatar

    Is it safe to feed my leos crickets/mealworms/waxworms bought from a bait shop? Thank you for answering all my questions by the way! You are such a big help!

  42. avatar

    Hello Cami,

    Bait shops are fine as they and pet stores purchase from the same few breeders. But use mealworms very sparingly, wax worms only 1x weekly or less, and feed crickets well for 2 days or so before use. Please see this article for additional food sources and let me know if you need any info, best, Frank

  43. avatar

    I found a goo like substance in my calcium bowl, and right beside it was poop, could it be parasitic? Or maybe just the leos pee mixed with the calcium?

  44. avatar

    Hello Cami,

    Dropping vary in appearance and can be semi-liquid in form; females may pass undeveloped eggs, but these are generally larger, very noticeable. Best, Frank

  45. avatar

    My hatchling leopaed gecko has snot i think in its nose and its blocked both nostrels, what can i do to remove it

  46. avatar

    Hello Cami,

    Unless it is a bit of un-shed skin, best not to try to remove yourself but instead have the animal checked if there appears to be a growth of some sort, Best, Frank

  47. avatar

    My male leopard gecko (about 4 months) licks his private area, is this normal? What does it mean?

  48. avatar

    Hello Cami,

    They use the tongue to clean off the eye cap (fused eyelid) but I can’t say I’ve ever observed what you described…may be a normal behavior, but I’ve nor read anything related; watch for any signs of irritation, redness, discharge, best, Frank

  49. avatar

    My gecko has what her vet called “eye caps”. I was told to attempt to hand feed her, but she isn’t people friendly at all. The vet told me to call back in a week, but I really feel I should call back ASAP to get the medicine he said he could prescribe her. I tried for an hour to get her to eat something and she just couldn’t find it. She’s never had any eating problems before, and I’m really worried about her. What should I do?

  50. avatar

    Hello,

    Perhaps she is referring to unshed eye caps?..the caps are actually the eyelids, which in this species are clear and fused. The eyelid lining problem is another matter, but either way attention is needed. if the caps are unshed, they will not come off on their own, except perhaps at the next shed. If a lining is involved, that too will need vet attention.

    No need to worry about missed meals, a well-fed gecko can go for weeks w/o food with no ill effect. However, if either of the above problems are present, they should be attended to. Please let me know if you need anything, I hope all goes well, frank

  51. avatar

    my gecko has skin stuck in her eye lid but she can open it and i was wondering how to get rid of the skin?

  52. avatar

    Hello Hannah,

    If it’s just a small bit of dry skin you can try wetting it with a bit of olive oil or a shedding aid and removing gently with a forceps/tweezers that will not later be used for people. Use to people, so that the lizard can be held stable and still. Or spray the animal a bit each day with warm water to see if she might rub off herself. If it looks to be the actual eye cap, you’ll need to see a vet. Please keep me posted, frank

  53. avatar

    hey frank my gecko isn’t the easiest to keep still so it isn’t off yet so any other ways?

  54. avatar

    Hi Hannah,

    You can try spraying as I mentioned but with 2 people working the animal should be easy to control. Best, Frank

  55. avatar

    Hey Frank! I’ve got an African Fat Tailed Gecko and recently noticed the top of his head is a little white. I rubbed it lightly but I don’t think it’s skin. I waited until he shed again but unfortunately the whiteness didn’t disappear. It didn’t get any worse, though. It’s on top of his head and down to his nose, not covering completely just in little spots. I’ve given him two bathes in warm water and gently wiped at it with a Q-tip but nothing seems to help. He’s kept in a large tank with a heat pad under a rock hut type thing, as well as a blanket over his cage to keep the heat in. He doesn’t seem to like misting so I haven’t done that. I was wondering if you could suggest something to do for him? I don’t think there are any rep. vets in my area so I’m not sure where else to turn too. I can’t find anything on the internet and the pet store we got him from said it’ll go away with time and to just keep bathing him.

  56. avatar

    Hi Leah,

    I have seen areas of discolored skin on this and other species; if it doesn’t seem to be spreading, I wouldn’t worry. I’ve not had any good explanations from our vets at the zoo in the past, but most of the time a harmless skin pigmentation change is involved. I may be able to refer you to a local vet if you wish to have the animal examined.

    Don’t continue rubbing/bathing, but you should mist the cage daily and the animal as well on occasion.

    Best, Frank

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>

About Frank Indiviglio

Read other posts by


avatar
Being born with a deep interest in animals might seem unfortunate for a native Bronxite , but my family encouraged my interest and the menagerie that sprung from it. Jobs with pet stores and importers had me caring for a fantastic assortment of reptiles and amphibians. After a detour as a lawyer, I was hired as a Bronx Zoo animal keeper and was soon caring for gharials, goliath frogs, king cobras and everything in-between. Research has taken me in pursuit of anacondas, Orinoco crocodiles and other animals in locales ranging from Venezuela’s llanos to Tortuguero’s beaches. Now, after 20+ years with the Bronx Zoo, I am a consultant for several zoos and museums. I have spent time in Japan, and often exchange ideas with zoologists there. I have written books on salamanders, geckos and other “herps”, discussed reptile-keeping on television and presented papers at conferences. A Master’s Degree in biology has led to teaching opportunities. My work puts me in contact with thousands of hobbyists keeping an array of pets. Without fail, I have learned much from them and hope, dear readers, that you will be generous in sharing your thoughts on this blog and web site. For a complete biography of my experience click here.
Scroll To Top