Often overlooked, Magnesium plays a critical role in the chemical and biological processes in the Marine aquarium. Magnesium is a major element (as opposed to a trace element) and is the third most common element in seawater behind only Sodium and Chloride. Magnesium is an essential element to all organisms for biological functions, and is especially important to organisms that are skeleton building, as Magnesium is a key component of aragonite. Far too often, we find aquarists who are struggling to figure out what is causing issues in their reef aquarium, and Magnesium deficiencies end up being at fault. It is impossible to maintain ideal Calcium and Carbonate levels in salt water without maintaining Magnesium levels as well. Many folks struggle with keeping their Alkalinity and Calcium to appropriate levels in their marine aquariums, yet never test their Magnesium levels. At levels below natural sea water concentrations of Magnesium (1280-1350 ppm), Calcium and Carbonates will precipitate out with each other in inorganic forms, and dosing either will not achieve the proper results in a low Magnesium environment.
Sources of Magnesium
Quality salt mixes will provide natural seawater concentrations of Magnesium, when properly mixed. Many Calcium supplements will also provide some level of Magnesium as well, some intentionally, as some products will contain Magnesium as an “impurity” in the source of calcium carbonate used in processing. Magnesium is also released from the dissolution of media within Calcium reactors. Magnesium is also available as a stand-alone supplement, in both liquid and powdered forms. Concentrations of all these sources are highly dependent on the manufacturer’s processes, and the sources of Calcium and Magnesium used.
Test your water! Before dosing anything, you need to know where you’re starting. Maintaining magnesium levels is a balance between what you are adding, and what is being consumed. Every aquarium is different, and each will consume magnesium at its own individual rate, but you should try to maintain levels between 1250 ppm and 1350 ppm.
For those who are keeping fish only marine aquariums, routine water changes with a quality salt mixture is probably enough to keep Magnesium levels high enough. Chances are you will never have a problem; the element is used up very slowly, and is regularly replenished by the salt mix.
The beginner reef-keeper maintaining live rock and a mix of soft corals, zooanthids, mushrooms and maybe a few stony corals, will typically have a slightly higher magnesium demand than a fish-only tank. Water changes will probably not be enough to maintain ideal levels in these set-ups, but using products that are a combination of minerals usually do the trick and they’re easy to use. Products like Seachem Reef Complete, Kent Liquid Calcium Reactor, Brightwell Liquid Reef and Red Sea Reef Foundations ABC+ stand out among these products.
Advanced reef aquarists maintaining stony coral dominated aquariums, particularly fast growing SPS corals, will generally have a much higher Magnesium demand. Advanced reef aquarists also tend to be much more hands on with everything that goes into their aquariums, and stand-alone Magnesium supplements tend to be the method of choice. Products like Brightwell’s Magnesion and NeoMag, Seachem’s Reef Advantage Magnesium and Kent’s Tech-M are popular for these aquarists.
Alternative uses for Magnesium
In recent years, elevated magnesium levels have been experimented with as a means of controlling nuisance algae. Bryopsis, for example is a very difficult algae to control once established in the aquarium. Many aquarists (myself included) have reported success in the eradication of this pest using Kent Marine’s Tech-M product to raise Magnesium levels upwards of 1800ppm in their aquariums. These levels are maintained for a period of several weeks, until the algae has died off, then allowed to fall back to normal levels. Some say that maintaining elevated levels indefinitely is safe, but I do not feel that this is a good idea. There isn’t much real data on the effects of elevated Magnesium levels for long term use, and there is the potential for toxic affects in the long term. Many aquarists have used this method on other nuisance algaes as well, but there is not definitive guide for what algae magnesium dosing will work on that I am aware of. This is not a magic bullet, so good, sound husbandry and water quality standards should always be employed.
Hope this clears up some confusion on Magnesium and magnesium dosing, if not please feel free to leave a question or comment.