Home | Aquarium Livestock | Sunfish Care – Keeping Pumpkinseeds, Bluegills and their Relatives

Sunfish Care – Keeping Pumpkinseeds, Bluegills and their Relatives

Pygmy SunfishHello, Frank Indiviglio here.  The world’s 30-35 freshwater sunfish species (Family Centrarchidae) range throughout Canada, the USA and Central America.  Although popular among European aquarists, sunfishes have been largely been neglected in American aquaculture. This is a shame, as all are colorful, interesting and active, and most adjust well to aquarium life. From the tiny Black-Banded Sunfish to the 39 inch long Largemouth Bass, there is something for everyone.  I’ve had the good fortune of working with a “sunnies” ranging from the tiny Black-Banded Sunfish to the massive Largemouth Bass, and would enjoy hearing from readers who have also come to know them, or wish to (please post below).

Obtaining Sunfishes

Although rarely offered in the pet trade, many species are easily collected via seine net or minnow trap (check state regulations).  While their diversity is greatest in the southeastern USA (my friend in Louisiana collected 8 species in the lake behind his house!), sunfishes can be found most everywhere in the USA. New York, where I reside, is home to 14 species.

Seven species in the genus Elassoma, known as the Pygmy Sunfishes, have recently been placed in their own family.  They are delightful aquarium subjects, packing all of the typical sunfish traits in 1-2 inch long bodies. Banded, Okefenokee and Everglades Pygmy Sunfishes are available from specialist breeders in the USA and Europe.

Commercial fish hatcheries often stock sunfishes.  Fish Creek Fish Farm accepts small orders for sunfishes and other US natives.


A pair of Longear Sunfishes, Bluegills or other large species will require a 55-75 gallon aquarium, but others will get along well in smaller quarters.  Included among these are the brilliantly-clad Banded, Blue-Spotted and Black-Banded Sunfishes (Enneacanthus spp.).  Young sunfishes will often form mixed-species schools, but adults generally become quite territorial and each pair may require a tank to itself.  All do best in heavily-planted aquariums.

PumpkinseedAlthough Pumpkinseeds and certain other adaptable species can tolerate a wide range of conditions, strict attention should always be paid to water quality.  The needs of other sunfishes vary; Banded Sunfishes and their relatives, for example, require soft, acidic water. Please write in for information on individual species. 

One of my favorites, the Pumpkinseed, is also among the most widely distributed.  But being common in no way detracts from its interest and beauty.  I remain baffled that these gorgeous fish, with their fascinating, “cichlid-like” behaviors, remain so underappreciated by aquarists.  Please read on, and write in with your thoughts and experiences.

The Pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus

Oval-shaped with a golden-brown background mottled in iridescent blue and green spots, this alert fish rivals the beauty of any tropical species.  The spotted pattern gives way to lines of blue-green around the head, and there is a bright red edge to the “ear flap” on the gill cover.  Males become especially brilliant (and aggressive!) during the breeding season. 


Found throughout the eastern half of the United States and Canada, the Pumpkinseed may reach 9 inches in length. Like the closely related Bluegill, with which it commonly hybridizes, the Pumpkinseed has been widely introduced.  Established populations have been recorded in Hungary, Russia, Switzerland, Morocco, Guatemala and elsewhere. Transplanted Bluegills have traveled even further, and may now be found in countries as far flung as Malawi, Swaziland and Korea. 

Beauty and Attitude

Pumpkinseeds are extremely active and inquisitive fish, and take notice of everything that occurs around their aquarium. I’ve found them to be somewhat bolder than others.  In my teens, I kept 6 small Pumpkinseeds with a Largemouth Bass in a 75 gallon aquarium.  When they reached 4-5 inches in length, they ganged up on their larger relative and nearly killed it before I could intervene.

I recently removed a 2-inch-long specimen from an aquarium that was home to several much larger Bluegills. Bluegills housed with larger fishes usually stick to heavy plant cover until they have put on some size. The minute Pumpkinseed, however, established a territory within hours of his introduction, and soon after began attacking his tank-mates.  I now have 3 fingerling Pumpkinseeds in with the Bluegills; they are getting along, but make no attempt to hide and are right out there competing at feeding time.  

Adults become quite aggressive towards each other and are best-kept as a pairs.  Males in breeding condition cannot be housed together, and should be separated from females by a divider until she appears receptive.


BluegillAs with all sunfishes, the male Pumpkinseed evacuates a circular nest in the substrate and stands guard over the developing eggs (please see photo of nesting male Redear Sunfish). During this time, he can be seen cleaning the nest and aerating the eggs with his pectoral fins. Breeding is most likely to occur in large, well-planted aquariums that have been subjected to natural temperature and light fluctuations. 

The male will not to venture far from the nest. Try not to disturb him, for he is quite high strung, even to the point of attacking hands placed in the aquarium. Please write in for information on rearing the fry.


Pumpkinseeds and other sunfishes are carnivorous and prefer to feed upon insects, worms and small fishes.  Newly-collected individuals may refuse other foods, but in time can be induced to accept fresh shrimp, frozen bloodworms, freeze-dried krill, cichlid pellets, flakes and similar foods. 

I’ve had good success with diets comprised of approximately three quarters live foods (earthworms, blackworms, guppies, crickets, sowbugs) and a quarter cichlid pellets freeze dried and fresh prawn, and trout chow. In the warmer moths, I collect moths, beetles, tree crickets, and other insects around my outdoor lights each evening. The strong reaction of my sunfishes (and, indeed, most tropical fishes) to these novel foods always fascinates me.

I’ve observed wild and captive Bluegills feeding upon aquatic grasses, so some experimentation with plant foods for other species may be worthwhile.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.  Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable.  I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible. 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. 

Thanks, until next time,

Frank Indiviglio


Further Reading

The North American Native Fish Association: a great resource for sunfish enthusiasts

Sunfish: Species List, Photos and Natural History Details

Sunfishes of New York

Sunfishes of Alabama


Pygmy Sunfish image referenced from wikipedia and originally posted by Brian Gratwicke
Pumpkinseed image referenced from wikipedia and originally posted by Tino Strauss
Bluegill image referenced from wikipedia and originally posted by Ltshears


  1. avatar

    Nice article…..I love sunfish, some of them like the Western dollars, Orangespotted, Redbreast, Longears are some of the most beautifull fish in the world.

  2. avatar

    But the one species I feel has the most potential as a aquarium species is the green sunfish. Extremely agressive, stays small, and I have seen them in colors rivaling the discus in beauty in the spawning season.

  3. avatar

    Thanks Adam…wondeful fish, I agree. I hope to cover them in the future, Best, Frank

  4. avatar

    thanks for the information. been keeping S/A cichlids for years and have now turned my attention to there north American cousins. I currently have four pumpkin seeds, two black crappie and a small mouth together in my 70 gallon tank. I was just wondering if I should get a bottom feeder. cause they like to hide and so do catfish and I don’t want a territory war.

  5. avatar

    Hi Wayne,

    Sorry for the delay…I missed your comment somehow.

    Great choices, will make a very interesting tank! I’d stay with the fish you have now…even if they are young, in time they will grow and you’ll likely need to move 1-2 out. Native cats such as the various bullheads are fascinating to keep, but get quite large and will put additional strain on water quality. If you can locate some tadpole madtoms or related species, they should work out, at least until the others grow into adulthood. Another option would be any of the Corydoras cats. Most do fine at room temps. even into the mid 60’s F; the bronze or Green Cory is a good choice,,,..very robust (one of mine is age 23 years or so); your other fish will likely ignore, but watch teem at first.

    Even more so than most SA cichlids, dynamics in a sunfish tank can change very quickly…agression can develop overnight among fish that have lived together for years. Also, watch the bass; I once had small laregmouthed bass in with a mixed group of similar sized sunfishes. All went well for about a year, then the sunnies turned on the bass, nearly killing it…a preemptive strike?

    Enjoy and pl keep me posted, Frank

  6. avatar

    I have a long eared sunfish in a 55gl tank with a black crappie, all was good for about a month. Then the sunfish started taunting the crappie and the other day the crappie was charging/chasing the sunfish, so i moved the sunfish to another tank. I would really like the sunfish in the big tank with other fish. Do you have any suggestions on how to do this or what fish would make good tank mates for the sunfish?

  7. avatar

    My son caught a warmouth sunfish and we put him in my aquarium and he ate all my minnows in a week and now we feed a mix of worms and grasshoppers. he is an adult would he attack younger warmouths?

  8. avatar

    Hello Lee,

    Unfortunately it’s difficult to generalize…I’ve had them get along well for months, only to have aggression breakout suddenly. Adults tend to chase off smaller ones, but sometimes ignore them until they become mature. Groups do best in very large, heavily planted tanks that allow the fish to avoid one another. I would add 2-3 (may be better than adding a single fish, chasing is distributed) and watch closely. If all goes well, try others if space permits but monitor behavior as they grow. Another adult of the opposite sex could also work out, beast, Frank

  9. avatar

    As a teenager I caught a small green sunfish while fishing. I brought it home and kept it in an aquarium. It would actually jump 5-6 inches out of the water to take a grasshopper from my fingers. My friends were fascinated by my fish that would jump high out of the water to take an insect from my hand.

  10. avatar

    Thanks, Allen….another great fish that is ignored by aquarists. I’ve had some hand feed, but never jump like that! best regards, Frank

  11. avatar

    I have kept 4 longear sunfish and 2 rock bass in my 150 gallon back yard pond all summer and they are doing great. I’ve attempted to add a couple green sunfish(the same size as the other fish) three times now and every time they jump out of the pond within a few days and die. Is this normal behavior for green’s or are my established fish just bullying them out?

  12. avatar

    Hi Jamie,

    I’d agree they are being stressed by the other fish..very hard to add new sunnies to an established group, as territories will have been formed, etc. 150 sounds like a nice size for the fish you already have; could add a small bullhead , but watch size as they grow quickly. Do you over-winter the fish in the pond? best, Frank

  13. avatar

    I’m considering. Getting a sunfish, and I’ve learnd that some sunfish stay a decent size. Might it be possible to keep a dollar sunfish in a 20 gallon species aquarium?

  14. avatar

    They are a great choice for a well-filtered 20 gallon. This supplier carries them and many other natives; also other small species – Bantams and Pygmies. Enjoy and please let me know if you need anything, best, frank

  15. avatar

    I have a question- can a green sunfish beat up a jewel cichlid cause my bet is on the green sunfish.

  16. avatar

    In a fight who would win the green sunfish or a jewel cichlid.

  17. avatar

    Hello John,

    There’s no effective way to predict such things…territory (“the home field advantage”) is a very important consideration; also hormones play a big role..i.e. males in breeding condition or protecting nests would be primed for aggression. Best, Frank

  18. avatar

    Hey there! great information article on pumpkin seeds, I have 7 of them in 130 gal tank with a red bay snook cichlid, they all get along now for 2 years I have 3 males 4 females some much smaller then the others, my question is I’m afraid that they may start becoming more aggressive and start mating soon as they are older and larger now, 2 years 5 inches +, or do you think that after this long together they will continue to get along. The males often after feeding time chase the others around but that’s as aggressive as it gets so not bad, plus the cichlid puts the males in there place every so oftan if they get rowdy. Do you think after this long they will be fine or should I be paying a close eye on their behaviour?


  19. avatar

    Hi Kyle,

    Thanks for the kind words and glad to hear of your interest.

    It’s difficult to predict…if they go into breeding condition, males will fight. However, captives do not always enter breeding mode – the amount of space in the tank, temperature and light cycles, diet, etc plays a role. I’ve had males (bluegills) get along for years in large zoo exhibits, but others have become territorial in smaller aquariums…it will be interesting to see how all goes, please keep me posted, enjoy, frank

  20. avatar

    Thanks for the quick reply will keep you posted on how it goes. So I guess its safe to say its probably better if they don’t breed in this tank… They are on a 14-15 hour light cycle florescence lighting, lightly planted with ferns river rock, and driftwood arranged throughout, feed on a variety of pellets, their favourite being the wardley shrimp pellets they go nuts for them! Filtration is a eheim 2217 canister, a Rena xp1 canister and a home made filter consisting of a large amount of bio mech rings and balls with a maxijet 1200 powering it as well providing the aeration, do you have an suggestions or changes you would note?

  21. avatar

    My pleasure, Kyle.

    Sounds good – if environment remains stable, w/o changes in light/temp they may not breed..interesting to see it, of course, but you’d likely need to remove all but the breeding pair.

    They do fine on pellets, I use a good deal of live food as well…earthworms, crickets and wild-caught insects in summer, may help maintain colors, condition, but I’ve seen many do well on commercial foods alone. Enjoy, frank

  22. avatar

    5 / 2 /15 . Hello , I went fishing for sunfish today , caught and released 4 nice ones . Started too late and not enough bait , lol . I would like to smoke these fish along with catfish for export .

  23. avatar

    Is it OK to keep one sunfish alone by itself?

  24. avatar

    Hi Jackson,

    Thanks for commenting. They can certainly be by themselves, but it might spice up their life a bit to have a tank mate. Thanks!

  25. avatar

    My little nephew just caught a sunfish and would like to keep it and I would like to know if I should feed them anything special to keep them healthy please email me and let me know what yur opinion is
    Thank yu.

  26. avatar

    I recently caught 2 small (3 inch) pumpkinseeds. I’ve had then for a week in a small cooler with an air pump. They’re doing great! Eating like pigs. I plan on moving them into a 60 gallon cube tank after I get it set up and cycled. I was just wondering if that would give them enough space to form their own territories. Being a cube it doesn’t have the length of a normal aquarium.



  27. avatar

    Hi Jessa, thanks for commenting. You might try experimenting with different flakes or pellets to see what your specific sunfish will eat. Generally a pellet or flake with Spirulina or something like algae pellets/discs would replicate what they would eat in their natural environment. Hope that helps, let us know if you have any questions. Thanks!

  28. avatar

    Hi Kevin, They should be fine as long as there is some kind of decor in the tank like rockwork or driftwood to break up the territories.

  29. avatar

    Thanks Eileen!

  30. avatar

    Thanks for this! Wife and I have been keeping fish for a while and I got the idea in my head to start an aquarium more representative of the local ecology. Sunfish seemed a good option after finding some very friendly sunfish while diving some of the local lakes (I think they’re seeking out food, not looking for company).

  31. avatar

    Hi Frank
    I have been keeping sunfish for a few years now. Just started a new 50 gallon tank 2 months ago with native fish from the Delaware river in front of my house. I have 5 pumpkins about 2 to 3 inches, 3 perch about the same size, 2 black nose dace, and 2 killifish. All the gravel, rocks and drift wood are also from the river. Right now their all getting along but i’m sure that will change as they get larger. I feed them flakes, freeze dried blood worms and pellets once a day. I would like to add a couple of madtoms but haven’t had any success trapping them so i might go with corycats instead. I like your page and am going to facebook you also. Thanks

  32. avatar

    Hi, I’m trying to set up a natural aquarium for my pumpkinseeds. I’ve tried with 3 different ones using the lake water they came from and they have all died suddenly within a day after appearing otherwise normal. What am I doing wrong?

  33. avatar

    Hello Brian, Without knowing more about the tank setup and situation – water chemistry before and after adding the fish, fish health before and after they were added, how they were collected, the equipment being used, how everything was set up and acclimated – it is really impossible for me to say. Taking any fish from the wild and introducing them to an aquarium environment can be very risky, stressful and unpredictable.

  34. avatar

    I used their lake water they came from…I’m trying a 2nd run now with well water in a 40 gallon tank, one fish about 2.5 inches. the well water has been treated for chlorine and ammonia. It has an aerator running as well as a filter. So far so good….any suggestions?

  35. avatar

    You’ll want to make sure the water chemistry is the same as the environment it is coming from as well – pH, hardness, temperature, flow. Depending on where you are located, you may need a heater and/or chiller to keep the temperature stable. Also, be sure that however you are collecting the fish is not harming them (ie. hook and line or rough nets).

  36. avatar

    Very good information. Lucky me I ran across your site by chance (stumbleupon). I have book marked it for later!

  37. avatar

    I have a Betta fish and he lives in a 2 gallon tank. Now beofre you get mad at me for keeping him in this tank, I will let you know that the fish was a gift from my friend during a secret santa thing we had at school. My parents told me that I had to pay for everything and with me limited funds, the largest size tank I could afford was a two gallon tank with a filter. Anyway, I have had my Betta for 1 1/2 years. He was fine, but around a month ago he started to act weird. He stopped eating whatever I gave him. Well he might have eaten it but usually he eats it immediately whenever I drop it in the tank. I figured he must be bored of his pellet food, so I changed it to bloodworms. He ate that, but only for two days and he didn’t eat most of it. His color faded and his fins started to look like they were rotting.He had been floating around the top lately, but he can go to the bottom and stay there when he wishes. The reason I told you that was because the lady at the pet store said that if they were floating at the top of the tank to feed them a frozen pea. Supposedly that would cure whatever illness he possessed. I tried it out but wouldn’t eat it. He isn’t eating anything and I am really worried. He hasn’t been eating anything I have given him.What is wrong with him? What can I do to fix it?Another thing, how often should I change the water. I thought that with the filter I would change half of the water every two weeks. I did a big cleaning of the tank about 4 months ago (scrubbed rocks, replaced all the water). Is this okay? Please don’t get mad at me this is my first fish.I feed him dry dehydrated bloodworms, they are not live

  38. avatar

    Hi Cynthia, I would recommend giving us a call and speaking with someone in our Fish Room about your betta and what would be best for you to do for it. You can reach the Fish Room staff at 717-299-5691 or 888-842-8738. You can also read more about betta care on our blogs about bettas and in our Aquatic Article Archive.

  39. avatar

    I have a small pumpkinseed sunfish in my tank it lives with a minnow that is a little bit smaller than it and a crayfish. The tank is 10 gallons is that a decent size for the 3 of them? Also I feed them goldfish flakes but, the sunfish (Dawn) doesn’t like them but Dawn likes the brine shrimp pellets and so do the minnow (Gill) and the crayfish (Fred). Fred normally eats the leftovers from the fish. I’m 11.

  40. avatar

    Hello Ryan, A 10-gallon tank may be OK for a little while but it is too small in the long term. A Pumpkinseed Sunfish should have at least a 30 gallon tank; without knowing what kind of minnow and crayfish you have, it is hard for me to say what size would be best for them. Sunfish need meaty foods like you can read about in the Feeding section of this blog which is why you see that it prefers the brine shrimp over the flakes. You can take a look at this blog again for some better ideas on what to feed your fish. Crayfish are scavengers and will usually just eat whatever they find.

  41. avatar

    Hi, i recently picked up a small baby bluegill, I will keep it in a 5 gallon tank for about 2 months then give to someone else. Would this be fine?

  42. avatar

    Hello Josh, It may be ok in their for a time, but it is difficult to say without knowing the size, what type of filtration you have, the other equipment, etc.. Be sure to keep a close eye on water quality and temperature in a tank that small.

  43. avatar

    Hi, I was looking to raise a small largemouth bass and I was wondering what size tank should I buy. Another question is what size tank should I get if I wanted two pumpkinseed sunfish? Thanks,

  44. avatar

    Hello Finn, A Largemouth Bass would really need at least a pond as an adult. To start with, they would need at the very least 180 gallons or more but it would outgrow that quickly. Two Pumpkinseed Sunfish should have at least 75 gallons although if they both turn out to be males, one would likely take over that tank quickly and attack the other.

  45. avatar

    My budget is like a 50 gallon so if I wanted one sunfish would it be fine in a 50 gallon?

  46. avatar

    Hello Finn, Yes. One Pumpkinseed Sunfish should be fine in a 50-gallon.

  47. avatar

    I have a pet pumpkinseed, he’s still only 2 inches long and I’ve had him for a few months, I’ve raised him ever since he was in his freshwater planktonic stage and I love him, he’s in a 25 gal. tank and I’m going to move him to an 1,000 gallon tank once he gets to 4 inches, I already keep various sunfishes, but none of the bass, I’m able to identify each one by distinctive patterns, but I want to know one thing, how will I know if they are pregnant and when is their mating season (or do they breed year round?)

  48. avatar

    Hello Anonymous, As we mentioned in this blog, “Breeding is most likely to occur in large, well-planted aquariums that have been subjected to natural temperature and light fluctuations.” There is no specific breeding season but in most areas, these changes are usually triggered in late spring or early summer.

  49. avatar

    My green sunfish is the boss of the firemouth cichlid they fight sometimes but my green sunfish wins. Cant wait to see him get jeaouse over the female green sunfish I’m getting my male green sunfish.

  50. avatar

    My kids brought home some tadpoles and a tiny bluegill last fall, the tadpoles have tripled in size and the bluegill is at least six times bigger. They did very well on watercress and frog food, but the other day when we slept over a friends house, we came home and the bluegill had eating all the tails off the tadpoles. Needless to say we went out the next day and bought a huge tank, and thanks to your article, some crickets too. The tadpoles seem to be fine hanging out and eating the watercress. I think Gilly will do even more growing on his new favorite diet!!!

  51. avatar

    My son & i collected a sunfish/pumpkinseed/the like quite by accident.
    There had been a terrible storm where waves crashed up on to low spots on the sand. I let him walk through the ‘puddles’ & bring home whatever he found: waterbugs, snails, minnows, etc.
    At one point i was standing in there, & said, something just tickled my foot–it’s in here!
    Sure enough, little guy about 2 in long, an inch high & ALL eyes!!!
    We, of course, brought him home, too! I fed the bucket he was in (with aerator) with flake food. He didn’t eat. I fed frozen food. Nope. ….finally, i realized ‘Moonbeam’ was eating EVERYTHING else in his tank!!! ALL his ‘friends’!! Lol
    We brought him more & more ‘friends’ from the lake he came from.
    Moonbeam did eventually adjust to frozen food for the winter months, as the lakes froze & he couldn’t eat fresh food.
    He is now about 4, 4.5 inches. As adorable as ever. LOTS of personality!!
    Recommend these pets to EVERYONE!!

  52. avatar

    hi my Warmouth that i have had for 9 years now doesnt eat barely anything anymore and he does its like every four days. he is in a 60 gallon tank. how do i get him to eat

  53. avatar

    Hi Andrew, What are you trying to feed it? You may just need to change the food or try something live if you haven’t already. Also, as always, be sure to check with water quality to make sure that the change in behavior isn’t a result of environmental stress due to poor water conditions.

  54. avatar

    I have 3 sunfish in my 45 gallon aquarium, 1 pumpkinseed and 2 bluegills. The pumpkinseed is about 3 inches the hills are like 5. One of the gills is extremely territorial and aggressive to the other gill and the other gill has lost half its tail… Is there any way I could fix this issue.

  55. avatar

    Hello Finn, There really is no way to stop a fish from exhibiting its natural behavior like territoriality. Rearranging the rockwork may help for a time but 1 3-inch and 2 5-inch is going to be pretty crowded for territorial fish in a 45-gallon aquarium. I would consider upgrading to a larger tank or keeping less fish in that tank.

  56. avatar

    I have a 30 gallon tank with 4 beta fish, would I be able to put any type of panfish in it? If so what size and breed should I get?

  57. avatar

    Hello Beck, It generally isn’t recommended to keep bettas together or with any other tankmates. None of the Sunfish discussed here would be suitable with bettas or in a tank that small.

  58. avatar

    I have two sunfish in a 45 gallon tank, both are only 4 inches. One being the pumpkinseed has been fine . However my bluegill, recently is having an issue or acting strange where it seems to be continuously swimming at a 70 degree upwards and it can’t suspend. He just sinks now. Anyoen knwo why? Thanks.

  59. avatar

    Hi Finn, Sounds like a swim bladder issue which can have a number of different causes. Have you tested the water quality? What are the current values for temperature, pH, Ammonia, Nitrite and Nitrate to start with? What do you feed it?

  60. avatar

    Have not tested the water quality but I just did a 75% water change which I hadn’t done in about two weeks and a lot of extra fish food was coming up as I haven’t been feeding them I think they may have been over fed while I was away. I feed them chichlid flakes, and occasionally worms or minnows.

  61. avatar

    Hi Finn, Overfeeding or improper feeding could certainly cause swim bladder problems, as could water quality issues as a result of too much food left in the tank. A water change that large essentially restarts the tank and makes it a “new ” tank again so you’ll definitely need to monitor the water quality closely over the next few weeks since it will go through its Nitrogen Cycle again and you may see spikes in Ammonia and Nitrite. I would certainly recommend testing the water; water tests are like the aquarium equivalent of vital signs at the doctor’s office and tell a lot about the tank and potential problems in it.

  62. avatar
    Partick J. Gleason

    I just got my first four sunfish today, I have a 55-gallong aquarium built into an interior of my house. Until a few weeks ago, it had been home to seven northern leopard frogs, five southern leopard frogs, one tree frog and a crayfish. The crayfish had been with me for about ten years, grown more than eight inches in length, and (presumably) died of old age.

    I put all the frogs back where I found them, cleaned the tank thoroughly, and aged the water for seven days. It had a four-stage filter because frogs tend to be quite messy. Their water must be completely flushed daily to keep them healthy.

    Today, I decided to try 3-inch long sunfish instead, and obtained 2 pumpnikseeds and 2 bluegills. I understand that they would be happier with some pond weeds and some gravel. The frogs and crayfish did not like those things at all, but preferred very large, smooth rocks.

  63. avatar

    It still shocks me that sunfishes are not popular aquarium fishes here in the US, the way they are in the Eastern Hemisphere. For years I’ve kept green sunfish, orangespotted sunfish, and bluegill, as well as the little blue-spotted sunfish and the giant largemouth bass, and they are all awesome. Like other perciform fishes (such as perches, cichlids, damselfishes, groupers, and others), there’s a lot to appreciate and learn about sunfishes. The green sunfish is one of my favorite aquarium fish. With their cool behaviors and territorial aggression, they are really impressive. I’ve never kept pumpkinseed, but I’m a big fan of them as well.

    Speaking of perches, I’m also shocked that the little darters aren’t as popular as African lake cichlids, or that the big yellow perches aren’t as popular as other big predatory aquarium fishes. The great thing about temperate fishes of all kinds is how hardy they are, not needing heaters the way tropical fish do. American sunfishes, perches, and minnows are really underappreciated in the aquarium hobby, and don’t get anywhere near the exposure they deserve, the way Eurasian members of the minnow family like goldfish and carp do. I hope that changes sometime soon.

  64. avatar

    How many 2″ green sunfish can fit in a 15 gallon tank

    Thanks frank,


  65. avatar

    Hello Michael, A 15-gallon tank is really too small for Sunfish to be kept in long-term. One or two may be fine for a short time but the Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) grow to 3-7 inches in length and should really have at least a 55-gallon tank for a pair.

  66. avatar

    Michael, I agree with Eileen’s comment. Rearing small babies for a while in a small tank is fine, but by the time they reach about 2 inches SL or so, they really should be moved to a more permanent tank they can grow into. Green sunfish get fairly large – usually at 6 – 8 inches, and exceptionally even a foot long. They are also powerful, aggressive fish (which is part of what makes them so interesting!), so they need lots of space. I wouldn’t give them any less than 55 gallons for permanent housing.

    As for how many, I haven’t been able to keep them with other perciforms. Like other people, I have found that they tend to get into fights with cichlids. I have also found it’s hard to keep them with other species of sunfish, like bluegill or orange-spotted, at least as adults. As for with their own species, like many other perciforms, I have found that they seem to do well as loners or in schools, but in pairs one may bully the other. I would love to hear what Eileen or others have observed as well.

  67. avatar

    Hello Gaddy, I would certainly recommend keeping them in a species-only tank, both for their temperament and for their environmental requirements. Many sunfish are from cooler areas than most cichlids found in the aquarium trade and have different water parameter requirements so it is best to keep any fish in as appropriate an environment as possible. Sunfish can be kept alone with no issues but pairs versus groups depends on the space available in the tank and gender of the fish. Males are far more likely to fight (especially if fighting over a breeding female) and both genders will become more aggressive if their territory is limited.

  68. avatar

    Yep, temperature compatibility is definitely important. It’s generally a bad idea to keep tropical and temperate fish in the same tank. Differences in body language between similar fishes is also a barrier to keeping them together. I’ve found you can often keep perciforms successfully together with catfishes, because they are different enough and don’t view each other as threats.

  69. avatar

    Do you have any recommended websites for purchasing sunfish?

  70. avatar

    Hello Joe, Aside from the website recommended above in this post, I would recommend checking with local fisheries or even bait shops in your area if you live in an area where sunfish are native. Sunfish aren’t sold by most aquarium and pet stores since the sale of species native to the US is regulated in most states.

  71. avatar

    Great article,just wanted to add that I live on Vancouver Island,BC Canada on the West coast and have pumpkin seeds in all the lakes around here

  72. avatar

    Hi I was away for two weeks and when I came back today I noticed that my bluegill has this white almost mole like stuff growing around just above his eyes all the way down his body in a line. What can I do to fix this? Thx

  73. avatar

    Hello Sorhaug, I’m not sure what you are referring to and it would be difficult to recommend a treatment without being able to diagnose it. If you are able to get a photo of what you are referring to, you can email us at fish@thatpetplace.com and one of our staff members can try to help you. Information about the tank would be helpful as well – to start with, at least volume, what is in it, test results for pH, Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate, temperature.

  74. avatar


    I have a warmouth and I’ve read some things on them but I want to see if anyone has any input to add. I was wondering if I should add any other fish to the tank. They’re independent fish and I’m not sure if more fish would add stress or comfort her. I was also wondering if there are any specific things I should know about warmouth care like when to feed them and how to give her the best life. I’m also wondering if it is illegal for me to own her.

  75. avatar

    Hello Nicki, The Warmouth (Lepomis gulosus) is a pretty aggressive sunfish so I would recommend keeping them in a species-only tank. They would be likely to attack and kill other tankmates. They are carnivores and should be fed a variety of meaty foods like insects, worms, crustaceans or fishflesh. I wouldn’t be able to say if they are legal in your area since I don’t know where you are, but I would recommend contacting your local Fish & Game commission for information on the laws in your area. If you are unsure who to contact and are in the United States, you can start with the US Fish and Wildlife Service website or ask at local locations that issue fishing licenses.

  76. avatar

    Hi! I was wondering where you found that information from? I’ve heard many conflicting things on the internet and various lab studies. Thank you!

  77. avatar

    Hi Nicki, Which information are you referring to? I cross-referenced several difference resources about the species regarding the diet and aggression and found a definite consensus there.

  78. avatar

    Ah alright. Whenever I’ve researched it says that warmouth are docile around other fish but just aggressive when they’re protecting their eggs (lab study).

  79. avatar

    I have been catching and keeping longear sunfish for some time. They are abundant is tributaries of the Tennessee River in North Alabama. I find it easy to catch them on smalll flies (No. 12s work well) and have never lost any due to damage from hooks. Among other foods, I feed my longears dried mealworms, which are sold by Walmart as supplemental bird food. My fish take readily to it. This freeze-dried food keeps virtually forever. It is 47% protein. A seven-ounce bag will feed my fish for months on end. I also feed them “rosy-red minnows,” a variety of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), which are sold for 14 cents each at the local Petco. They are fast as lightning and a bit of a challenge to the longears, but eventually get caught and eaten. “Buford,” my oldest and largest specimen–about 6 inches–has become a real expert at stalking and nailing them.

  80. avatar

    How large does a tank need to be for a pumpkinseed or green sunfish to reach full size?

  81. avatar

    Hi Gaia, A 55- to 75-gallon tank would be best as we discussed here but a lone Pumpkinseed should have at least 30 gallons.

  82. avatar
    Chris McClelland


    I have had success raising green sunfish in an aquarium and did so about 11 years ago. He was 3/4″ long when I caught him in a creek and when I set him free(we were moving), he was almost 6″ long. Now, 11 years later I have started another tank again with 2 fathead minnows and a tiny green sunnie and we’ll see where this goes.
    In my past experience, the sunnies get extremely aggressive once older and never tolerate their tank being altered. I ended up with some dead fish when I removed the plants to clean the tank. That set them off on a new territory dispute. Now I use a gravel vacuum to suction the bottom without moving anything.

    Anyhow, awesome website! I published a site too, back when I had my first tank. Tips on keeping bluegills and sunfish. All firsthand experience.

  83. avatar

    thinking about keeping Lepomis gibbosus in a tank wondering about equipment that would be essential for recreating its habitat… 1 to 2 meters deep 55 to 70 gallons. heavy vegatation logs rocks sand gravel … mostly wanted to know filtration systems to maintain consistent water properties

  84. avatar

    For mature fish, one of our Fish Room experts who keeps Sunfish would recommend 2 power filters. At home, he runs an Emperor 400 on one side and a Aquaclear 110 on the other. With these two filters, you should have a flow rate of about 700 gallons an hour and with monthly maintenace these should run for years. Hope that helps!

  85. avatar

    Hi Quinn, For mature fish, one of our Fish Room experts who keeps Sunfish would recommend 2 power filters. At home, he runs an Emperor 400 on one side and an Aquaclear 110 on the other. With these two filters, you should have a flow rate of about 700 gallons an hour and with monthly maintenance these should run for years. Hope this helps!

  86. avatar

    I am thinking about catching 2-3 bluegill or pumpkinseed can they fit ina 50 gallon tank? Also what should I feed them in the winter when I can’t catch worms or insects? When they grow larger could I feed the some small minnows?

  87. avatar

    Hi Daniel, We’d recommend at least 55-75 gal for a pair as mentioned here. You can find canned worms and insects in most pet stores in either the fish food or reptile food sections, or you can check with your local pet stores or bait shops for live feeders. You can supplement with small minnows when they get large enough but any fish should be given a varied diet and feeding live fish is always risky due to the change of parasites and relatively poor nutritional value. Read over the article again – particularly the Feeding section – for other food recommendations.

  88. avatar

    For several months kept Buford, a 5-inch longear sunfish, in a 30-gallon tank, releasing him to the wild when I was going to be away for a couple of weeks. One of the foods I supplied this fish was FREEZE-DRIED MEALWORMS, which are sold as nutritious supplements to bird food. He consumed them voraciously, sometimes knocking them out of the water with his energetic feeding. Pet stores sell this product, but they are cheaper when bought in the bird food section of big box stores like Walmart. Dried mealworms are 47% protein, 25% fat, and 6% fiber, a high-energy food that is a great supplement for sunfish. Buford also gobbled up fathead minnows, available as “feeder fish” at many pet stores, most often as the “wild” variety but sometimes as the “rosy-red” strain.

  89. avatar

    I have a small sunfish in a bullfrog swamp tank(Vivarium)buil into a fifty five gallon tank,there are also two native crayfish,one red common beta and two comets that were originally feeders for my gar but these two little guys were exceptionally cute so the my wife insisted they be saved …these temperate and one tropical fish exist in room temp water with low tech filtration(sponge filter with power head,_and diy polisher with extra water pump from my tile wet saw.)there is also a hidden internal filter that i use as a waterfall feature sporadically gravel and sand mixture substrate with lots of plants floaters and rooted…because much of the tank is ldedicsyedvtk the frogs there is limited water in the tank so limited territory…in reality the entire length and width of tank is available to the fish but only at a depth of about 7-9 inches above that are artificial banks made of real soil and growing mosses and emergent marginal bog and semi aquatic plants…the fish have never had the slightest territorial disputes and coexist quite peacefully together.so while I’m no marine biologist i am an avid fish keeper with some thirty plus years in the hobby and I think it’s important to remember that at a point naturally exhibited behavior as far as territory possessiveness eating habits and water temp “needs”can pretty much go out the window when an animal spends enough time in captivity as we speak the little three inch blue gill and the feeder comet ,slightly smaller ,are hovering together sharing space quite naturally …obviously attempting such groupings by beginners or those new to a certain fish and unfamiliar with even its base level typical behavior and /or needs is inadvisable ,but these creatures are not robots ,mindlessly displaying the behavior written for them in biological handbooks or web site care sheets and in the hands of an experienced keeper can be quite adaptable and readily thrive in situations that a truly wild specimen would never tolerate without great stress to the fish…certain tropical fish are bred in captivity and only partly bound to the perimeters a wild specimen would require some are wild caught and detailed knowledge of that creatures natural setting is necessary to provide its needs others still are essentially extinct in their native range and have been for all purposes “reinvented “for aquarium life…so almost any fish can be kept with any other fish given an extensive knowledge of both fish’ Needs and behavioral nuances ….space to retreat to solitude when desired is paramount as is a fair amount of intuition but it is not just possible it’s quite doable and even in the oddest and exterior cases …and then there is the other possibility….epic failure and 100% death rate

  90. avatar

    Can you tell me what the best temperature is for me to keep my young bluegill sunfish and red eared slider turtle? Both are about 10 months old and growing fast. I am getting ready to move them into a 36 gallon tank and my heater for that tank keeps the temp steady at 79 degrees. The tank they are in now is smaller and the heater keeps the temp at about 75 degrees. What do you recommend?

  91. avatar

    Hi Bernie, A Bluegill should be kept at a consistent temperature anywhere between 60-80 degrees F. After consulting with our Reptile staff, the Redeared Slider would need water temperature around 75-82 degrees F with a basking area out of the water heated to around 90 degrees F with an incandescent bulb. Both would need a much larger tank than 36-gallons…the turtle itself would need at least 75-gallons as an adult and the Bluegill would need at least 55-gallons.

  92. avatar

    My sun fish keep putting their mouth at the top of the water and their like extremely youn what should I feed the cause rn I’m using gold fish flakes

  93. avatar

    Hello, thanks for the information! I’m a beginner at owning fish. Me and my fiancé have been catching quite a few sunfish, especially green sunfish. We finally caught a large redbreast bluegill and decided to keep it. It’s currently in a smaller tank where we kept some smaller sunfish in until we can get the 65 gallon tank ready and clean. How long should I wait for the tap water to filter and ph to be balanced before I put it in? Also how do I tell if it’s a girl or a boy…?

  94. avatar

    Hi Dawson, The Feeding section of this article discusses lots of different types of foods to feed your Sunfish.

  95. avatar

    Hi Kassey, Tapwater should always be dechlorinated and treated for both Chlorine and Chloramines before adding your fish. Depending on what your area uses to treat the tapwater, just running it through the filter isn’t enough; you likely need a dechlorinator. Also, every new tank needs to go through the Nitrogen Cycle process. This Fishless Tank Cycling Method is the safest for the fish and typically should take about 3-5 weeks for a 65-gallon tank. In addition to those links I’ve already posted, this Aquarium Setup Beginners Guide and Freshwater Aquarium Basics article may help you. There is no clear-cut way to tell gender in these fish but the mature females tend to develop a brighter underside and the mature males tend to be more brownish.

  96. avatar

    Thank you!

  97. avatar

    Hello so I am looking into getting 100 gallon tank and putting about 5 bluegill from a near by pond “if any survive the trip back it’s a 25 to 30 minute walk home and I can’t transport them in water. What plants should I have in there and what should I put on the bottom of the tank. I was thinking of having it on my porch as well. It would be able the same temp as the very small pond. I would love it if my son had pet fish. But I want something I can catch becouse I don’t have a lot of money. But I would be able to feed them well with chunks of fish, bread, worms, and bugs that are always on my porch because of my garden.

  98. avatar

    Hello Coley, Fish would not survive for 25-30 minutes out of water. If you can’t catch them safely and transport them safely in water, it would be better to leave them in the pond and enjoy them there. You could keep whatever plants you would like but most plants will need proper lighting and circulation, and the fish would need a well-filtered tank to survive. Bluegills are carnivores so bread is not an appropriate food. Bugs and worms would be fine.

  99. avatar

    Hello, When I was younger I had a 10 gallon aquarium with tetra’s in it, it was nice until they inevitably suffered a premature death by my young hands. Now that I realize the error of my ways, I have been looking into getting a pumpkinseed but have hesitated because I can’t find anything on what size aquarium a pumpkinseed would need, I only want one Pumpkinseed because I figured it would give me some experience before moving on to other/more fish. Any advice beyond tank size? Most of the material/info available is on the fish, and not how to care for it.

  100. avatar

    Hi Fordywhat, What information are you looking for that isn’t covered here?

  101. avatar

    Curious to how many bluegill could a 15000 gal pool support. I have a 4×12 intex pool converted to a pool/pond. It has about a 2 and 4 lbs largemouth, 5 lb channel, and 7 bluegill. The bluegill spawned this year and I have thousands of small fry swimming around. Just not sure how many it can support as they grow.

  102. avatar

    Hi Brandon, That is difficult to say or to give you a number. It would largely depend on the filtration, circulation and food source. With the bass and catfish, most of those fry will probably become food and few will likely survive to adulthood.

  103. avatar

    Excellent articles on the freshwater sunfish! I am an avid fisherman myself but I enjoy mostly catch-and-release. I really enjoy watching and interacting with the sunfish I have collected 4 my tank they are all from the same body of water in all seem to get along exceptionally well! The yellow perch I’d have to say are the most interesting ones they stay together as a school and are the first ones to go to the surface for food they are very aggressive eaters but they do not bother the other fish whatsoever which I have bluegills pumpkin seeds and three kinds of open water bait fish that also came from the same Lake and a large crayfish that I have had for years what is a good all-around temperature to keep the tank at I’ve had it around 70 degrees they seemed to really be thriving in the tank at that temperature should I keep it at 70?

  104. avatar

    Hi David, If they are thriving at 70, I’d say keep it there!

  105. avatar

    My dad and I have been planning to go on a fishing trip next weekend, that’s why I’m currently looking for a minnow seine, so we will be able to catch a lot! I never knew that Longear Sunfishes will require a 55-75 gallon aquarium. Also, it’s interesting to learn that Pumpkinseed may reach 9 inches in length.

  106. avatar
    Kristofer Sanders

    Hi Frank,

    I enjoyed the article. Your love and fascination of fish and other animals shows.

    My son recently caught some various blue gill fingerlings with his minnow trap. The idea was to used as bait. We brought them home and threw them into the aquarium to keep them fresh until we went fishing again. Next fishing trip, he said “Oh no. They are pets now. We cannot fish with them.”

    There truly are something. I didn’t realize how beautiful they are. Brisk and hardy also. I think they doubled in size in just a couple weeks.

    Anyhow, I was interested in how long they are fry, how long as fingerlings, how long as a juvenile?

    I built a successful split stream aquaponics system that is growing spinach and where Columbian tetra are breeding. I am considering a larger implementation that would be tailored to bluegill. So I am trying to learn more about their life cycle and breeding habits.

    If you could talk to me about the breeding and raising fry I would love that discussion also.

    You can respond here. My email is also tofer5000@gmail.com.



  107. avatar

    Hello Kristopher, “Fry” and “Fingerling” are both terms used to describe juvenile fish. There really is no absolute, definitive point that marks where one starts and another begins. Typically, the tern “fry” refers to newborn fish and “fingerling” refers to gamefish that are the size of a finger (that term isn’t usually used in the aquarium trade). Feel free to let us know if you have any other questions or concerns.

  108. avatar

    Thank you for the information. I’m just starting a native tank with my sunny and there isn’t too much info out there. Mine was wild caught. Due to his aggression, he’s in a tank by himself.

  109. avatar

    “Please write in for information on individual species. ”

    For the love of all sunfish keepers:
    Please table & publish the acid/alkalinity, hardness/softness, hi/low temp limits of sunfish.
    I got plenty in my back yard, but they die in my aquaria.
    Can’t find in one place clear data on which breeds handle water like mine (600 TDS, 8.4ph, and temperature swings because Florida panhandle isn’t aways on “roast”).

  110. avatar

    Hi Brian, If you are collecting wild Sunfish to keep in an aquarium, the best thing to do would be to mimic the water parameters where they are collected. If your parameters are the same, make sure your filtration and tank size are suitable, that they are collected safely, and acclimated to the tank.

  111. avatar

    Two things:
    #1 four of my pumpkinseeds have turned two shades of blue. I can’t find photos like them anywhere. The others look more like normal pumpkinseeds.
    #2 it turns out the four are two pairs and have each hatched babies in separate areas of the 40 gallon breeding tank. I have no idea how to feed the tiny ones.

  112. avatar

    Hi Michael, If you would like us to help you ID the blue “Pumpkinseeds”, feel free to send clear photos and tank info to fish@thatpetplace.com and we can try to help you. Males do turn blue during spawning but we would need to see them to ID them. For the fry, you can target-feed them small food items, frozen foods, crushed up flakes or pellets, or try checking our blog article Feeding Egg Yolk To Fish Fry.

  113. avatar

    I have had some good luck trying to keep Sunfish as pets. Some are colorful and almost all will easily eat the food we give them. I’ve given them dried tubifex worms worms, frozen blood worms, fresh beetles and fresh moths. They eat almost anything. The one I have now, hid from me for two days. After that the fish stuck to the bottom of the tank. Now he/she (I can’t seem to sex them) comes to the top and he/she eats out of my hand. They seem colorful and intelligent; they seem to be curious about their surroundings.
    These fish make great pets; they are colorful and intelligent enough to be interesting pets.

  114. avatar

    Hi, I’m putting together a tank for a single sunfish, either bluegill or green sunfish as those are the most common in my area but I will take a pumpkinseed too. Right now I have a 29-gallon tank, though I could upgrade to as much as a 40-gallon tank in my current space later on. I plan to have some native Canadian waterweed plants in the tank, plus some large rocks for the fish to hide. In order to anchor the weeds down and get them growing I will have 1-2 inches of live river sand and then another two inches of small pond gravel on top of it.

    My biggest concern is that the closest and easiest place to find sunfish, a manmade lake just a 5 minute walk from home, is rather dirty. Last year it suffered a blue-green algae bloom, and I remember testing it with a science class in high school and it was not very favorable. How can I acclimate my sunfish to my much cleaner and safer water? And do I need to treat it for any wild diseases or parasites even though it will be the only one in the tank?

  115. avatar

    Hi Jerry, We always recommend a slow drip acclimation into a new environment. It is always possible to see disease and parasites, especially if you are harvesting a fish from the wild. If it is the only fish in the tank, it is likely not a huge concern but you would want to monitor it carefully.

  116. avatar

    Young pumpkinseeds also have vertical chainlike bands down their sides with dark vertical bars between the primary bands. These help to differentiate them from other sunfishes. Lepomis gibbosus are most easily confused with redear sunfish, L. microlophus and bluegills, L. macrochirus. ( Smith, 1979 )

  117. avatar

    Hey Frank, had a dream about breeding sunfish last night so looking things up found your blog. Very nice. I grew up in Central Jersey but have lived out west for over 20 years now.
    I was the kid that had loads of aquariums with both native and tropical fish, reptiles and amphibians.
    One REALLY interesting thing I witnessed was a 4 inch or so large mouth bass allowing a bullhead catfish of slightly smaller size ‘clean’ it like we see ocean fish do in nature shows. The healthy bass swam to the catfish lowered its fins tilting its body head down and allowed the catfish to ‘mouth’ its body. Mind you bullhead cats have wide mouths without extendable lips unlike the ‘lipped’ cleaner fishes (wrasse?) of the oceans. This behavior took place for several minutes with intentionality but I never witnessed it again.
    -Chris Pagano
    Sparks Nevada

  118. avatar
    Charles R. Stack, MPH, BCES

    Thanks for this fine thread! I’m a freshwater biologist by training, and started my aquarium hobby as did most kids in the 1960s = neon tetra, zebra danio etc. Boring! However, as a bit of a fisherman, I soon put 2 + 2 together, and soon developed a skill for catching tiny sunfish using miniscule Size 20 fly-fishing hooks (this is now called “micro-fishing!”) Indeed, the sunfish display great personality and temperament in the aquarium environment – I found that they could be “trained” to be fed by hand, much like the silver arowana fish from South America. They would even “jump” for a suspended fly from a straw! I encourage any hobbyist to consider raising these fish and learning about their natural history, preferred foods and mating habits, you won’t be disappointed. Best, CRS, MPH

  119. avatar

    I bought a 45 gallon tank and want to limit my fish to native species. I live in Kansas City so minnows, bluegill, pumpkin seed, catfish (all small), etc. I bought a tank heater but now after doing research, it looks like I won’t need one for native species. Is that accurate?

  120. avatar

    Hello Mark, That would depend on what the water temperature is at at room temperature and how consistent it remains. You may need a heater or even a chiller to keep it at a consistent temperature.

About Frank Indiviglio

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Being born with a deep interest in animals might seem unfortunate for a native Bronxite , but my family encouraged my interest and the menagerie that sprung from it. Jobs with pet stores and importers had me caring for a fantastic assortment of reptiles and amphibians. After a detour as a lawyer, I was hired as a Bronx Zoo animal keeper and was soon caring for gharials, goliath frogs, king cobras and everything in-between. Research has taken me in pursuit of anacondas, Orinoco crocodiles and other animals in locales ranging from Venezuela’s llanos to Tortuguero’s beaches. Now, after 20+ years with the Bronx Zoo, I am a consultant for several zoos and museums. I have spent time in Japan, and often exchange ideas with zoologists there. I have written books on salamanders, geckos and other “herps”, discussed reptile-keeping on television and presented papers at conferences. A Master’s Degree in biology has led to teaching opportunities. My work puts me in contact with thousands of hobbyists keeping an array of pets. Without fail, I have learned much from them and hope, dear readers, that you will be generous in sharing your thoughts on this blog and web site. For a complete biography of my experience click here.