Experienced aquarists know that the vitality and vibrance of aquarium fish hinges not only on a clean environment but on the quality of the diet you provide for your fish. Flake and pellet foods have been long time aquarium dietary staples and frozen foods are popular for their nutritional value and variety, but a couple new kinds on the feeding block are gaining in popularity – gel foods and frozen “IQF” foods. Read More »
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Hi, Cory here. One challenge often faced by aquarists is keeping your fish free of parasites and disease. If your fish become sick you have to learn how to treat them effectively. There are so many pathogens in the aquatic world, from parasites to bacteria and fungi. Probably the most common infestations that plague aquarium keepers are Marine Ich (Cryptocaryon irritans) and Freshwater Ich (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis). These afflictions are easy to spot, and relatively easy to treat depending on the type of fish and aquarium setup. There is another parasite which I’m addressing today that is common though frequently overlooked or misidentified. Marine Velvet maybe just as common as Ich, but is rarely diagnosed in time to save the fish. Read More »
Hello, Patty here. Everyone has heard the old saying “you are what you eat” and, when considering your diet, we all know which foods we’re supposed to eat (not that we always do) to keep our bodies happy and live long and healthy lives. The same goes for our pets; even our fish! Just as we supplement and vary the diets of dogs, cats, and other pets, it is important to vary the foods we give our fish, so that they can develop to their full potential with regards to color and size and so they can get nutrition necessary for breeding, fighting parasites and diseases, and for looking their best for years in your aquarium.
Flake food is a staple
There is a plethora of foods in the market today for feeding aquarium fish. Most of the foods aquarists are accustomed to are in flake, pellet or granule form. These foods are the staple diet most people feed their fish as they are economical, well preserved, easy to store and convenient to feed. They are formulated with ingredients like fish meal, wheat flour, and a laundry list of other ingredients including added colors and vitamins to make up for the natural nutrients lost in the preparation of these foods. These foods are often sold as complete diets, and will keep fish alive and well-colored, but may ultimately be lacking. Kind of like one of us eating ramen noodles or some similar packaged food, every meal of every day.
Fresh is best, Frozen is still better
So what do you do if you want to give your fish a diet upgrade? There are very few fresh or live fish foods available to consumers, but earthworms, blackworms, ghost shrimp and some others can be a nice treat for some fish if you can find them. A terrific alternative is choosing frozen foods and formulas to supplement the flake food regimen several times through the week. These foods are harvested and frozen at the peak of freshness, preserving the naturally occurring vitamins and nutrients. Many of these foods are (or are very similar to) foods that the fish in your aquarium would seek out in their natural environment. Today, there are varieties of frozen foods available to suit the needs of just about any type of fish you keep. These high-quality, high-protein food items increase the vitality and color of your fish, and allow you to see the fish develop and thrive.
Many of the frozen foods on the market are aimed at marine fish and corals, but not exclusively. There are brine shrimp, mysis, plankton, baby brine shrimp, clam, mussel, and more which give you lots of options for variety and each with its own benefits. Baby Brine, for example are very tiny but high in nutrition and ideal for fish fry and filter feeding inverts and corals, while clam, mussel, and squid come in larger pieces for larger fish. Whole silversides and sand eels are great for groupers, eels and other larger fish with big appetites!
Freshwater options include bloodworms, glass worms, and beef heart, though mysis shrimp, plankton and brine may also be fed.
There are also several formula foods available, which are combinations of these proteins which may be suspended in a gel with other foods such as spirulina, sponge or other specialty food bits to enhance the diets of specialty feeders like marine angels and omnivores. Consider the fish you’re keeping and what they might eat on the reef or in the river bed to select what’s best.
Some Things About Frozen Foods
Frozen foods are available for purchase online or in retail stores. Being frozen, these foods are shipped with dry ice to keep them in that state. The foods must be thawed before feeding, but this is easy as the foods are usually in cube serving form or in thin flat packs that can easily portioned and the appropriate portion snapped off from the body of the pack. The food portions can be placed in a small vessel of cool water (never warm or hot water as it will cook the food and break down the nutrients) and will be thawed in minutes and ready to feed. You may even choose to soak frozen foods in additional vitamin supplements like garlic extract or Selcon as they thaw to enhance them even more.
Frozen foods may be a bit more expensive and perishable, but the benefits to the food will outweigh the disadvantages. Give it a try – your fish will love you for it!
Thanks for reading, and if you have any questions about feeding frozen foods or feeding fish in general let us know!
Until Next Time,
Hello, Frank Indiviglio here. Marine, grindal, micro, white, blood and other worms drive even the most peaceful aquarium fishes wild, and with good reason – they figure prominently in diets worldwide, and are packed with important nutrients. Research in which I was involved (Bronx Zoo) has shown that earthworms form a near-perfect diet for many amphibians, and may likely be so for certain fishes as well.
Blackworms are a pet trade staple…today I’d like to mention a few lesser-known types.
Marine Worms, Families Neridae and Annelidae
Sandworms, bloodworms and other large marine species are seasonally available at bait stores or, where legal, may be collected under rocks along bays and tidal streams. They are an expensive but important component of the diets of a great many saltwater fishes and invertebrates.
Several species have sharp mouthparts and can deliver a painful bite, and may be dangerous to aquarium pets as well….in fact, the hard jaw material of one sandworm is being put to industrial uses. It is usually prudent to remove the head before feeding.
Marine worms store well packed in seaweed under refrigeration. They are interesting aquarium animals in their own right – please look for a future article on their care.
Microworms, Anguillula silasiae and Grindalworms, Enchytraeus bucholizi
Grindalworms are related to earthworms; microworms are not true worms, but rather nematodes.
Whiteworms, Enchytraeus albidus
Closely related to grindalworms, whiteworms fare better at cooler temperatures (50-58 F) and may be fed oatmeal and staple diet fish flakes. Cultures are commercially available.
Bloodworms, Chironomus spp.
Unlike marine bloodworms, Chironomus are the aquatic larvae of tiny flying insects known as midges (“gnats”). Interestingly, they utilize a form of hemoglobin to transport oxygen in the blood, much as we do.
Bloodworms are impractical to breed but are available at pet stores, and survive well under refrigeration. Like other freshwater invertebrates, bloodworms may be fed to marine creatures, but they spoil rapidly in salt water.
Earthworms are the most useful of all invertebrates…a breeding colony will supply the needs of fishes and invertebrates of all sizes. Please see my article Rearing and Using Earthworms for further information.
For an interesting article on sandworm behavior and breeding habits, please see this article.
Please write in with your questions and comments.
Thanks, until next time,
Common Diseases and Conditions:
Ammonia Burn: As the name suggests, this is a burn-like injury caused by highly acidic ammonia build-up. Ammonia can cause open wounds on a fish’s body or damage to sensitive structures like their gills. These excessive ammonia levels are commonly caused by poor filtration or overstocking with too many fish or fish too large for the tank. Treatment includes eliminating the cause of the high ammonia level, neutralizing or removing the ammonia, and treating the wounds if necessary to avoid infection.
Aeromonas: Aeromonas infections are caused by several species of bacteria that are opportunistic and will affect organisms with weakened immune systems. It can affect fish, amphibians and even humans in some cases. Koi and other pond fish are vulnerable to aeromonas infections during the early spring and summer when temperature fluctuations can leave them vulnerable and weakened. Aeromonas attack organs and will digest gelatin and hemoglobin cells. It often appears as deep open sores on the body of a fish as well as causing severe weight loss as it attacks the internal organs. Aeromonas bacteria is very resistent to most medications and can be very difficult to treat. Strong gram-negative bacterial medications both in the water and in food treatments can be used. Injections are also sometimes used by veterinarians and biologists to treat larger fish.
Bacterial Infection: Bacterial infections can have a number of causes and symptoms. They can result from poor water conditions or an injury, or as a secondary infection from a parasite or fungal infection. Some infections can be diagnosed as “gram-positive” or “gram-negative” in specific cases, but most are simply general infections. The most common symptom of a bacterial infection is a reddish patch or sore on the body of the fish or as reddish streaks in its fins. A medication is usually needed as treatment and can range from mild botanical-based solutions to stronger antibiotics including sulfa, penicillin and amoxycillin. A bacterial infection is almost always a symptom of a larger problem (bullying within tankmates, poor water conditions, parasites, etc.).
“Black Ich” or “Black Spot”: This disease is a parasite infection caused by flatworms. It mainly affects tangs and surgeonfish and appears as small dark spots on the body of the tang. The fish may also flick or scratch against surfaces or may be less active than normal. The flatworm lays eggs on the body of the fish and drops off within a few days, leaving the eggs to hatch on the fish a few days after that. Treatment for Black Ich can include freshwater baths or antiparasitic medications with active ingredients like formalin.
Brooklynella: This parasitic infection is also known as “Anemonefish Disease” or “Clownfish Disease” due to its most common victim. It is a protozoan that usually spreads very quickly and is almost always fatal and has no commercially-affective treatments. It can first be seen as a fine sheen on the affected fish – usually newly captured or transported fish – but soom evolves to signs of physical stress to the fish, difficulty breathing, and excessive slime coat production. As this slime coat sloughs off the fish, it can spread the protozoans throughout a system to prompt quarantine of an infected fish is absolutely important. All tank equipment should be cleaned and sterilized well as well to avoid spreading the disease. As I mentioned, there are no medications that are known to be very effective on these protozoans, but medications like those containing formalehyde, malachite green and and methylene blue used in a quarantine tank can help. Do not use freshwater dips with this infection.
Environmental Stress: Environmental stress can result from improper water conditions (temperature, pH, salinity, etc.), unsuitable décor (too much or too little vegetation or decorations, too intense or dim lighting, etc.), or exterior conditions like activity in the room around the tank or vibrations caused by an unstable surface or tapping on the tank. Some of these stresses can be easiliy fixed while others can be more difficult. Poor health or unusual behavior (including jumping from or trying to jump from the tank) can hint towards something wrong with the fish’s environment. Researching all choices for an aquarium and observing behavior regularly can help an aquarist to notice these problems.
Fin Rot: Fin rot is more of a symptom than a disease and is essentially just what the name describes. The fins on the fish, most often first noticed in the caudal (tail) fin, will appear to be rotting away and may be red and ragged. The fins may also appear white as a secondary fungal infection sets in in some cases. This is usually caused by a bacterial infection and can be the result of bullying or fin-nipping tankmates or poor water conditions. The cause of the condition should be address (water quality improved or aggressive tankmate removed) and the fish can be treated with an antibiotic or antibacterial medication.
Fungus: A fungal infection in aquarium fish is more often a secondary result of another condition rather than a separate condition in itself. Secondary fungal infections usually result when a fish is already weakened due to poor water conditions or another disease or condition. Leftover food or waste in an aquarium can also cause fungal growth. Fungus in aquarium usually looks like white cottony tufts on the fish or on the waste and can be treated with antifungal medications and by eliminating the cause of the fungus (poor water conditions, overfeeding, wounds due to parasites or aggression, etc.).
Head and Lateral Line Erosion (HLLE): Head and Lateral Line Erosion (HLLE) is seen mostly in saltwater tangs and angelfish but other fish are also susceptible. Another similar condition, known as Hole-in-the-head, is very similar in appearance but mainly affects large cichlids and freshwater fish. With HLLE, the area around the head and eyes and the length of the lateral line down each side of the fish’s body becomes pitted and can appear to be rotting away. While not usually fatal in itself, HLLE can cause permenant scarring and is a symptom of a more serious and ongoing condition like poor nutrition. Fish like tangs that are especially vulnerable to this condition should be fed a varied diet high in fresh macroalgae. Vitamin supplements can also be helpful. Some research suggests that HLLE can also be caused at least in part by other stresses like some flagellate parasites or stray electrical current.
Hole-in-the-head Disease: Hole-in-the-head is very similar to HLLE, described above. Some aquarists argue that these two names refer to the freshwater and saltwater versions of the same condition since they share some of the same causes and symptoms. Hole-in-the-head is found mostly with large cichlids like Oscars and Discus but can affect other fish as well. Like HLLE, the main cause is usually linked to improper diet or water conditions and adding vitamin supplements and a varied diet can often help stop and reverse some of the effects of the disease. Hole-in-the-head is also attributed more to parasite infections than HLLE, specifically protozoans.
“Ich”: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, also known as Ich, Ick, or White Spot, is one of the most common and well-known conditions in the aquarium hobby. Many aquarists incorrectly diagnose problems with their aquarium as ich when it is actually another condition. Ich is a parasite that affects freshwater fish (as opposed to the similar Cryptocaryon that affects saltwater fish but has an almost identical appearance, symptoms and treatment). Ich appears as small white spots on the body of the fish. These spots look like grains of salt as opposed to the cottony tufts of fungal infections, the dust-like appearance of oodinium or some bacterial infections or the pits associated with Hole-in-the-head and HLLE. The fish may stop eating, may scratch and rub against surfaces, and may appear lethargic. Treatments include increasing temperature, adding vitamin and garlic supplements, freshwater or saltwater “dips”, and a score of medications. The parasite also has a life cycle that allows it to remain dormant in an aquarium or on a fish for weeks at a time before blooming when triggered by environmental conditions or the fish’s immune system being weakened by stress or anther condition. Some medications available to treat ich are not safe for all fish or for invertebrates; be sure to choose the medication suitable for your aquarium.
“Lymph”: Lymphocystis, commonly known as “lymph”, is a virus that affects both freshwater and saltwater fish. This virus forms white cauliflower-like growths on the fins and body of the fish and can cause white patches around the eyes. It usually develops when the immune system of the fish is weakened due to poor nutrition or water quality. Being a virus, there is no reliable medication to treat it but improving the conditions and diet will help to boost the fish’s natural immune system and can help the fish fight it on their own. Some sources recommend removing the nodules by scraping them from the body or fins; this can be a dangerous approach that may lead to excessive stress and secondary infections. Lymph is not usually fatal and often may clear up on its own as the fish fights off the virus.
Marine Velvet/ Oodinium: Marine Velvet, also known as Oodinium, is caused by the parasite Amyloodinium ocellatum. This is one of the most fatal parasitic infections as it is very contagious and resistant to most medications. Marine Velvet looks like a very fine velvety coating on the fish as opposed to the salt-like spotting of Ich. The fish may also breathe rapidly and have cloudy eyes. Quarantine and treat any affected fish as soon as possible with a strong antiparasitic treatment like copper sulfates. The salinity can also be lowered and a UV sterilizer can be used to help kill the parasites.
Parasites: Parasites in general are one of the most common aquarium maladies next to unsuitable water conditions. Parasites by definition are any organism that requires a host organism to live, often to the detriment of that host and may lead to the death of the host. The size of parasites varies greatly from tiny organisms like those responsible for Ich and Marine Velvet, to larger crustaceans and worms like flukes, anchor worms or fish lice. These parasites can also be external (living on the outside of the body of the fish) or internal (living inside the fish, often in organs like the digestive system). Common signs of parasites are rapid breathing, weight loss, white feces, sores or a flicking or scratching behavior against rocks and surfaces. Different parasites require different treatments and treatment methods and so should be carefully diagnosed before medicating or treatments.
Pop-eye: Like the name suggests, “pop-eye” is a condition in which one or both eyes of the fish appear to be swollen and popping out of the socket. This can result from a bacterial infection, poor water quality, injury or in rare cases a gas pocket in the eye socket. This is typically a symptom of an underlying condition like poor water quality and is difficult to treat specifically. Anti-bacterial medications may help but the water quality and any other possible causes should be addresses as well. Pop-eye may often clear on its own but may lead to decreased vision in the affected eye.
Swim Bladder Infection/Disorders: This condition is seen mostly in fancy goldfish, balloon mollies and other fish bred for a similar “chubby” body shape. The swim bladder in fish is used to help control buoyancy (the up and down motion) through gas exchange within the fish’s body. The fish is considered “neutrally buoyant” when it is able to hover in the water without floating up or sinking down. If the fish is unable to achieve buoyancy, it may float, sink or be unable to swim properly or remain upright in the water. This may be the result of an internal bacterial infection that can be treated with some medications. Some fish, especially fancy goldfish, may gulp air at the surface will feeding and have similar issues caused by air in their digestive systems. Feeding them fresh greens like peas or zucchini may help get rid of this bubble.