Home | Aquarium Livestock | Spawning Fish and Fish Eggs in the Aquarium – A Guide for Beginners

Spawning Fish and Fish Eggs in the Aquarium – A Guide for Beginners

Bettas Spawning under bubble nestWhat could be more exciting for an aquarist than seeing a pair of fish spawn or finding a mass of eggs in the tank? Many beginner aquarists may not realize that their fish have formed a pair, what the fish are doing if they show a courtship ritual or that they are preparing an area to lay thier eggs. When eggs or babies appear, someone new the game may have lots of questions and concerns about what (if anything) they need to do for a successful hatch or to raise the fry.

Chances are you’re doing something right if you have a pair of fish that are prepared to spawn in the tank. Typically conditions must be favorable (clean water, ideal spawning chemistry, ect.) for the fish to be interested in breeding to begin with. If you’ve reached this point you’ll want to know what happens next.

Fish in Love

Taking a short step back, let’s look at how you got to this point. You may have purposfully purchased a male and female in hopes that they would pair up to mate, or you may have gotten lucky when the fish bagger netted you the specified number you asked for, ending up with at least one pair. Some species of fish show sexual dimorphism, when mature males and females display different colors, fin-types, size or body shape. This is common in Malawi Cichlids, Killifish, livebearers and some other groups. More often fish are sexually isomorphic, meaning males and females are virtually impossible to tell apart visually. Some may show minute differences, but only a well-trained eye may be able to spot them. Once the fish were placed in your tank and made themselves at home, you may have noticed that two fish seemed particulary friendly, swimming together or camping out in a favorite area of the tank.  You may have also noticed one fish swimming around the other, shaking or performing some other little dance for the other that was noticeably different from typical swimming and hovering…this was probably the male fish courting the female, enticing her to spawn with him. Some fish change in color or shape when they are ready to spawn. Another indication may have been one or both of the fish creating a nest in the substrate by moving gravel or sand or otherwise grooming an area in anticipation of egg arrival. Regardless if you noticed any of these things or not, the time has arrived!

Breeding Strategies

Male and Female gouramies showing sexual dimorphismFish employ several strategies in spawning, so what to look for will depend on the type of fish you have.  Most are egg-layers; the male fertilizes the eggs externally. The eggs may be scattered, deposited or buried, depending on the species. Scattered eggs either fall to the substrate, float to the surface or stick to plants, rock or whatever else they come in contact with. The eggs hatch quickly and the fry are on their own to survive. Egg depositors lay their eggs on a surface for fertilization (glass, wood, rock, plants, ect). Some of these fish tend their eggs and fry, some don’t. They may keep the clutch in the open or some fish prefer to keep their eggs and fry in caves or crevices so they only have to defend the opening of the brooding area. These eggs are often defended and tended by both parents and hatch after a few days. The parents often continue to protect the fry for some time after they emerge.  Depositors such as some catfish and killifish lay the eggs and then leave, not tending the eggs or fry. Species that bury thier eggs are usually from areas where drought is common. The eggs are deposited and buried so they are protected when the area is dry. The eggs remain covered until it rains and conditions become favorable again for a successful hatch.

Mouth-brooding is a specialized method whereas the eggs or fry are sucked up and carried in the female’s mouth for several days or weeks. Many African Cichlids are mouth-brooders. Females lay the eggs then suck them into their mouth (these eggs are also fertilized in the mouth) or wait for the eggs to hatch in a pit where they take in the new fry to protect them. As the fry grow, you can observe their tiny bodies in the mother’s mouth when she opens it! The fry are released when they are ready to swim off on their own.

Other common aquarium fish create specialized nests where they can easily tend their fry. Bettas, for example create elaborate clusters of bubbles where they deposit their eggs. Other fish have skipped the egg-laying step and produce live young. These include guppies, mollies and swordtails!

Egg Issues

Once eggs are laid, there is a crucial window of time that can determine a successful hatch. There are several things that can happen that will prevent new arrivals. First of all, some fish eat their eggs. Whether attented or not eggs are a tasty snack, so other fish in the tank will try their best to snatch what they can. Factor in an inexperienced parent fish that hasn’t learned not to cannibalize the eggs or how to protect them effectively, and initial spawns may have a 100 percent mortality. 

Have your eggs turned white or opaque? Chances are these eggs were “blank” or infertile. It’s normal for at least some of the eggs to be infertile, though the fertile rate should increase as the fish continue to spawn. If the number of fertile eggs does not improve, several things can be considered for adjustment to help. Obviously, check the water quality first to rule out any issues there. Be sure the water isn’t too hard, as this Clownfish Embryosmay cause issues as the eggs develop, particularly in Amazon and other soft-water species. Adjust water flow away from the area where the pair is hanging out, too much flow can wash away the sperm, resulting in low fertility rate. It is also possible that the male itself is infertile or too closely related to the female. It may be time to find a new mate for your female if several clutches fail.

Eggs are also prone to bacterial and fungal infections. Pristine water quality can be the first defense against such infections, but they can still occur. The eggs will turn white or become blanketed in whitish or grey mold-like material. In the early stages you may be able to treat the eggs with a mild methylene blue treatment, but handling of the eggs can damage or perpetuate the problem.

Eventually you and your fish will probably have a successful hatch! 

Next time, I’ll talk about raising the brood.

Thanks,

Patty

Clownfish embryos image referenced from wikipedia and originally posted by Silke Baron
Spawning Bettas image referenced from wikipedia and originally posted by ZooFari

56 comments

  1. avatar

    Very useful.thankyou.

  2. avatar

    I have a mix of fish in my tank, we recently bought two new ones. Now there are eggs at scatt red at the top of the tank. The eggs are transparent with small white fish body like things in them. Are they fertilized eggs or not?

  3. avatar

    Hi Serena, It is difficult to say without seeing them or having more information about your tank. What types of fish do you have? Do you have both males and females? Most fish wouldn’t scatter eggs at the top of the tank. If you are able to get photos of the “eggs” that you are seeing, you can email us with more info about your tank at fish@thatpetplace.com and one of our Fish Room staff members will get back to you.

  4. avatar

    Was wondering if u can tell me if I can tell difference in the fish eggs, I have gourmis plattys mollies shark catfish neon tetra rams , and eggs are white are they fertile

  5. avatar

    Hi Ciera, If they are white, they are most likely not viable. Out of the fish you’ve named here, Platies and Mollies are livebearers and don’t lay eggs, Gouramis build bubble nests at the surface of the water, and Sharks, Catfish and Tetras are usually egg-scatterers and wouldn’t lay clumps of eggs. Rams would lay nests on surfaces like rocks, broad leaves or glass if you have a male and female but you would normally see them defending their eggs. If you have any snails in your tank, they generally lay eggs as well.

  6. avatar

    Hello just like to no that i have black things in my fish tank cud they be eggs cuz they sticking to the glass under gravel not had snails in my tank got mollies zebra neno guppies

  7. avatar

    Hello Ann Marie, I couldn’t say without seeing them. If you can get a clear photo, you can email it to fish@thatpetplace.com with some information about your tank (size, type and quantity of animals in it, etc), we can look at it for you.

  8. avatar

    I have a comet fish in my pond that is getting fatter and fatter and I was told that she has backed up this roeand I’m worried about her she is feeding well swimming well and is frisky. Is there anything I should be concerned about. Just let her be? It’s called the fish blog you can post it could turn where it’s about an

  9. avatar

    Hi Joanne, Are the scales sticking out like a pinecone or are they smooth to the body? A bloated fish with scales like a pinecone is a sign of dropsy, a serious internal condition with a number of causes. Unfortunately, when it gets to that phase, it is usually too late. If it just looks a bit chubby, try making sure it is getting plenty of vegetation in its diet to help pass any blockages. You can supplement its diet with foods like zucchini, peas, romaine lettuce, or live aquatic plants like Anacharis or Cabomba. And as always, make sure to test the water quality to make sure it is suitable and not contributing to any health problems for the fish. If you need any more assistance, feel free to call our staff at 717-299-5691 (option 6) to speak directly with someone in our Fish Room.

  10. avatar

    eileen i have found an egg sack in my tank so i took some water from the tank and put the sack of red tail shark eggs in it and now i have no clue what to do can you help me?

  11. avatar

    Hello name, Red Tail Sharks don’t lay egg sacs. If you can get some clear photos of what you see, you can email them to fish@thatpetplace.com with details about your tank (size, water parameters, a list of everything in it) and someone here can take a look at it for you. Regardless of what laid them, if the eggs were exposed to the air when you moved them, they are unfortunately probably no longer viable.

  12. avatar

    Found a clutch of eggs yesterday which I’m pretty sure belong to my bristlenose catfish & this is about the 3rd clutch I’ve found (though none were successful) they’re a yellow/green colour. As they share their tank with other fish who are guaranteed to eat eggs, I scooped the eggs up as gently as I could & I placed them into a confinement or separation compartment. Will they still hatch? Also if there are any tips or hints to increase the likelihood of the eggs hatching please let me know.

  13. avatar

    How to egg in aquarium

  14. avatar

    Hello Ranveer, I’m afraid I don’t understand your question. If you could elaborate on what you would like to know, we can try to answer it for you.

  15. avatar

    Hello Cody, That is difficult to say. If they were exposed to air at all during the move, they will likely not hatch. Disturbing the eggs can also affect the likelihood of the hatch. The tips discussed in this article can help with viable eggs otherwise.

  16. avatar

    I am curious about my blue acaras they just spawned eggs and now the male is super aggressive to the female he won’t let her around the eggs should I take her out of the tank or just let them do there thing. This is the first time I have ever had fish breed so I am looking for all the help I can get

  17. avatar

    Hi Yvonne, How large is the tank? Is the female being attacked the one that laid the eggs or is it from outside the breeding pair? Normally, a male/female pair will both guard the eggs and fry and will help keep them cleaned and aerated. If the tank is too small and there simply isn’t enough territory for the submissive fish to escape, you may want to separate them for now. Otherwise, they should work it out in time.

  18. avatar

    Very helpful, I have a new fry Julii corydora fry, roughly about 1 and half months old – only just found him though 🙁

    Have since found clusters of eggs but unknown if they have been fertilised or not, I can see what I think are like dark fish like dots (Easiest way to describe them) and have moved them into a isolation tank within the main one – my question is should I put the parents into the isolation tank? How would I tell if these species eggs are viable and for the little fry – should I put it in the isolation tank also?

  19. avatar

    Hi Shaun, The parents should be removed once the spawning is finished and the eggs have been laid. It is best to move the parents and not the eggs, but if you have to move the eggs, make sure that they are not exposed to air at any time…air will make them prone to a fungal infection and kill the eggs. If they are darkening rather than turning opaque white, that is a good sign that they are fertile. For more information on Corydoras breeding specifically, check out this article over at PlanetCatfish.com.

  20. avatar

    Hi Eileen,
    So I have a pair of Heros Liberifer and they have spawned twice now. Both times the eggs have turned white. Then they don’t remove them and after a day or more the eggs turn clear. The are a brown color and the eggs have a dot in them. They have laid eggs under the flow of the canister return, so I am hoping your answer will be something like too much flow after reading this article. I have other fish that have had successful spawns actually three recent batches of babies. No problems, just with thes two. Any ideas?

  21. avatar

    Hi. Recently set up new tank and bought two fish about two weeks ago. I have noticed about 4 or maybe five tiny things swimming about/hiding in places. They look like little fish, about 2-4mm big. What are they? Thanks in advance.

  22. avatar

    Hi Katie, I wouldn’t be able to even guess just yet without some more information. What type of fish do you have in the tank? Is it freshwater or saltwater? Do you have live plants, live rock (for saltwater) or anything else in the tank? Have you fed with any live foods? Are any of the decorations or decor in the tank taken from a natural source (pond, stream, etc)? If you have photos or video, that would be helpful as well; you can email them to fish@thatpetplace.com and we can take a look at them for you.

  23. avatar

    Thanks for replying not a 100% sure on type of fish can’t remember the name, but think they belong to the goldfish family. Freshwater. We have live plants bought from pets at home and everything else is man-made. We have substrate (tetra) and sand from pets at home. Don’t know if that helps, as clueless as it sounds! Will send photo asap. Thanks again.

  24. avatar

    Hi Katie, I received your email and sent you some more info, but it looks like you have a Swordtail and your Swordtail had babies! I sent you a few links for more info in my email but feel free to let me know if you have any other questions.

  25. avatar

    Hi Meg, I apologize for the delay…I wanted to consult with another one of our pro’s with some personal experience breeding cichlids because what you are describing is very atypical and is in the reverse order from what we would expect if the eggs had something like a fungal infection. If you could send us some photos of what you are seeing and more info about your tank (tank size, other tankmates, pH, temperature, other parameters), that might help us understand what you are seeing. You can email the photos and tank info to fish@thatpetplace.com and someone here can take a look at them and get back to you.

  26. avatar

    My jack Dempsey’s giving birth in a tank with a Oscar Atlantic jewels and a pocosomus will they be alright on there own?

  27. avatar

    This enlightened me. Thanks

  28. avatar

    Hi Tawnya, I’m not sure what some of those fish you are referring to might be but generally speaking, cichlids like Jack Dempseys and Oscars will prey on fish fry and eggs and should be separated. Most spawning cichlids will defend their clutches at least until they are free-swimming but the young fish will eventually need to be separated from the large adults until they are large enough to not be eaten.

  29. avatar

    Is there any way to keep a female from going into spawning behavior? Birth control for fish?? I have a female black moor and two male goldfish in a 55 gallon tank. She seems to be attracting the males about every two weeks and they chase her continuously. She has spawned several times in the past year and its a pain to clean up the eggs, not to mention the males roughing her up. They always eat the eggs before they hatch. Should I move her into another tank?

  30. avatar

    Hi Shirley, No, there is unfortunately no way to stop natural breeding behavior other than separating males and females. Goldfish breeding is usually triggered by temperature changes in their environment so making sure your tank is at a consistent temperature may help.

  31. avatar

    Hi there, I’ve had a electric blue Johanna for a couple of months now and I decided to get a female for him cause he seemed lonely. I did this exactly a week and a half ago and I just noticed a couple of days ago that she seems to be carrying something in her mouth and they are both hanging around his cave at one end of the tank and then they’ll hang out at the other end which is where she has been hanging out. My concern is if she is carrying are they his , does it happen that fast or was she already carrying when I brought her home. She was in a tank full of males?

  32. avatar

    Hi Carol, Its possible that it is your male’s brood if you didnt notice it when you purchased the female but it would be impossible to tell at this point. They certainly CAN breed that quickly, or she might have already been carrying the eggs when you bought her.

  33. avatar

    I have a pair of banded chiclids in my 55 gallon community tank which also is home to 1 angelfish a “shark” a beta and two algae eaters the chiclids are the largest fish in the tank and the female had lad thousands of eggs but has since ate a lot of them which were clear the remaining eggs are stuck to a rock and seem to be brown colored the pair is protecting the eggs relentlessly what should I do to make this a successful hatch?

  34. avatar

    Hi Neal, Aside from removing the other fish in the tank that may prey on the eggs or fry, there isn’t much else that can be done until the eggs hatch and the fry are large enough to move. You could try adding a divider but such a disruption may break up the pair.

  35. avatar

    All of my eggs were gone today

  36. avatar

    I recently bought some aquarium plants online for a 5 gallon tank that my beta enjoyed. He just died so I was about to buy a new one when I noticed about 6-10 tiny fish in my tank. Obviously the male beta did not produce them (He was a few year old). So they must have come from eggs on the new plants. Right not they are so tiny, I cannot see what kind of fish they are. Does anyone have any insight?
    Thank you.

  37. avatar

    Hi Dawn, Without being able to see them, it would be impossible to say. They may have come from some egg-layer fish but I couldn’t begin to speculate without knowing what fish were in with the new plants, what they look like, etc.. I would recommend contacting wherever you got the plants from to see if they have some insight for you on what they keep in their systems.

  38. avatar
    Victoria Watson

    Hi. I am currently tending to 3 groups of baby fish that started out as eggs stuck in the filter. Little tadpole looking things inside a clear egg sac. I change the top filter every week and for 3 consecutive weeks I’ve found eggs and some live fry. I have no idea what they are but they’re happy and growing steadily. Can I send a photo somewhere to see if you can tell what they are?
    We have 2 tuxedo platties and 2 white mollies (but I believe these are live bearers), 2 sharks silver with black tips, a few neon tetras, a few brown stripy barbs? (Similar shape to the tetra but brown, bigger with horizontal stripes) and 2 clown loaches (15 years old). I have the fish isolated in a bag just now while I try to find a suitable solution. As i say they are quite happy so far. The oldest are 3 weeks, the youngest I just found today. Really interested to know what they might be
    Thank you in advance
    Victoria

  39. avatar

    Hi Victoria, You can send photos or video and information about your tank to fish@thatpetplace.com and we can try to help you identify them.

  40. avatar

    Hi, I have had my Black Moore Fish for about a year now and it is the only one I have. Today I have noticed eggs all over the tank is this normal without a male?

  41. avatar

    Hello Declan, Goldfish can only hold eggs for a week or two but a female goldfish can and will release unfertilized eggs even without a male to spawn them just like hens lay eggs. Also, if you have any snails in the tank, it is very common for snails to lay lots of eggs as well. Goldfish will scatter eggs anywhere and everywhere while snail eggs tend to be in a mass or in lines.

  42. avatar

    I recently did a water change and after removing everything from the tank and washing the rocks i recognized there were eggs in a shell did i harm the eggs

  43. avatar

    Hello Nathaniel, Most fish eggs will not be viable if they are exposed to air.

  44. avatar

    I’m thinking about getting fish and breeding them but every fish I find lays to many eggs do you know some types of fish that only lays eggs once and does not need a separate tank

  45. avatar

    Hi Anonymous 2, No fish will only breed once and never again and all fish will need a larger tank for the new fish as they grow. If you don’t wish to worry about raising the babies and accommodating them, it would be best to not mix males and females.

  46. avatar

    Thanks Eileen in that case do you know if there are any fish that don’t have to be moved out of the tank if they have laid eggs

  47. avatar

    Anonymous 2- as long as the tank is large enough and well-filtered enough to support the bioload, most cichlid pairs can be kept with the eggs as long as they are the only fish in the tank. Any other fish in the tank may prey on the eggs and even some parent cichlids may prey on the eggs. Generally speaking, most cichlids do provide care to their eggs and young for some period of time. You can search “breeding cichlids” on this blog to see more articles about breeding different types of cichlids. If the fish continue to breed, however, the tank may become overcrowded and inbred so some fish will have to be removed.

  48. avatar

    Thanks

  49. avatar

    I have a 20 gallon tank is it ok if I were to put 3 Female bettas 5 White Cloud Mountain minnows and 2 Cory catfish

  50. avatar

    Please wander as soon as you can

  51. avatar

    Hi Anonymous 2/Fish lover 75/Fish lover 77, Bettas are better kept alone but that should be fine in a 20-gallon tank once it is fully cycled and as long as it has plenty of cover and hiding places. Cory catfish are schooling however and would do better in a larger group.

  52. avatar

    Ok and sorry about the names I forgot witch one I used

  53. avatar

    Ok so I have a Zebra Danio a Long Fin Leopard diano, two neon tetras, a Octolinius catfish, and used to be two Mollies but now just one in a ten Gallon tank, I’m new to fish keeping and I really rushed this so I’m trying to keep my fish alive, I have two baby fish they look like Molly spawn and a fish egg in the corner of my tank, what do I do to take care of the babies I’m really worried rn. Also I was going to do a 25% water change in a few days the tank has only been active about a week so I figured it was time based off of what I’ve looked up and with having fry in my tank I’d imagine it would be pretty hard to keep the fry alive with stress and a syphon large enough to suck them up and kill them so should I separate the fry in my spare 5 gallon tank or what should I do I’m totally clueless also I have no clue wtf species the fry is best I can tell because of the body shape and the color it’s Molly fry but idk

  54. avatar

    Hi Kyle, If you can get a clear photo of the fry, you can email us at fish@thatpetplace.com with info about your tank and someone here can take a look at it for you. You can also give us a call at 717-299-5691, option 6, if you would like to discuss the best course of action for your tank in more detail than I can get into here.

  55. avatar

    Hi. Will a male (ghost carp) fish be able to fertilise more than one females eggs per season, as I have seen a male fishing ‘chasing’ two obviously female fish around my pond? Thanks

  56. avatar

    Hi Andy, Yes, fish aren’t monogamous and males can certainly fertilize multiple females.

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