Frank Indivlgio here.
Check out: A Community Aquarium for Fishes, Shrimp and Frogs – West African Oddities – Part 1, to read the first part of this article.
Great care must be taken with water quality…in fact, the elephant noses’ sensitivity is such that they have been used to monitor water quality in industrial situations. They should only be introduced to well-cycled aquariums, and the test kit mentioned earlier should be employed regularly to test ammonia levels and other water quality parameters. That being said, when cared for properly the elephant nose will reward you with many years of enjoyment…I know of no one that regrets adding them to their collection.
African or Fresh-Water Butterfly Fish, Pantodon buchholzi
Inhabiting the same waters as the elephant nose and well suited to the same aquarium is the African butterfly fish. Living on the surface and active by day, the butterfly fish is the elephant nose’s polar opposite. The two rarely interact and nicely illustrate diverse and very unusual survival strategies.
An Unusual Appearance and Lifestyle
Wing-like pectoral fins lend this oddball its common name, and long rays trailing down from the pelvic fin add to its unusual appearance. When viewed from above it does indeed bring a butterfly to mind, but it is more likely a dead, floating leaf that the fish is imitating.
This well-camouflaged predator spends its life floating quietly on the surface, where its appearance and upturned mouth suit it admirably as a specialized hunter of terrestrial insects that fall into the water. In West African rivers teeming with competitors, the butterfly fish, much like the elephant nose, has evolved a unique way of exploiting a food source not available to most other fishes.
Feeding African Butterfly Fishes
African butterfly fishes feed only at the surface and will not dive for food. While most individuals will accept flake and freeze dried diets, they really come to life when offered live insects. Their reactions at such times will leave you with no doubt as to their dietary preferences.
Being highly evolved to feed upon a unique food source (land-dwelling insects), butterfly fishes do best when provided with the same in captivity. They will take a variety of foods, but I have found them to fare best on diets comprised largely of small live crickets, newly molted (white) mealworms, mealworm beetles, wax worms and wild caught moths, spiders and other invertebrates (the Zoo Med Bug Napper is a very useful insect trap).
Canned insects provide a convenient of increasing dietary variety. Zoo Med’s Anole Food contains small freeze dried flies – another great way to provide a natural food item to this most interesting denizen of tropical West African waters.
As you might gather from the foregoing, butterfly fishes rarely thrive in typical community aquariums. However, when fed properly and established in an appropriate environment, they are very hardy – living well in groups and not at all shy about revealing their unique hunting skills. The powerful pectoral fins enable this fish to skitter across the surface when threatened and to jump well, so be sure that your aquarium is securely covered.
Please see my article The Use of Electrical Impulses in Elephant-Nosed Fishes for further information on a newly discovered mode of elephant nosed fish communication.
You can read about the natural history of the African butterfly fish at http://www.fishbase.com/Summary/speciesSummary.php?ID=2075&genusname=Pantodon&speciesname=buchholzi
Next time we’ll take a look at some interesting invertebrate and amphibian members of the “West African Oddities Community Aquarium”. Until then, please write in with your questions and comments. Thanks, until next time, Frank Indiviglio.