Category Archives: habitats

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The Best Pet Tortoise – Greek Tortoise and Golden Greek Tortoise Care

Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.  I do not believe that any tortoise species can be classified as “easy-to-keep”, but several are better-suited as pets than others.  I’ve covered on of these, the Russian Tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi), in an earlier article (read article here).  The Greek Tortoise (T. graeca), while interesting enough for the most seasoned hobbyist, may also be the best pet tortoise, and an ideal choice for first-time keepers.  Topping out at 8 inches in length, captive-bred individuals are readily available.  They are as personable as any of their relatives, and decades of popularity among European keepers has left us with a good understanding of their needs. I’ll summarize these in the following article, and will also draw from my own experiences with this and related species during my long career at the Bronx Zoo.

Greek Tortoise (Tunisia)

Uploaded to wikipedia commons by Richard Mayer

A Note on Classification

Also known as the Mediterranean Spur-Thighed Tortoise (not to be confused with Africa’s Spurred Tortoise, Geochelone sulcata), the Greek Tortoise is one of the smaller of the world’s 53 tortoise species.

Its taxonomy is somewhat complicated, with up to 13 subspecies being recognized.  Traditionally, T. g. ibera comprised the bulk of those in the pet trade, and it remains the most widely-bred subspecies.  The parent stock seems to have originated mainly from Turkey. Read More »

Milksnake Care – Keeping the Sinaloan Milksnake and Related Species

Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.  The various Milksnakes are among the world’s most beautifully-colored reptiles.  Most are quite hardy, easy to handle and breed, and can be kept in modestly-sized terrariums.  Milksnakes are grouped with Kingsnakes in the genus Lampropeltis, which contains 16 species.  Sometimes referred to as “Tri-Colored Kingsnakes”, the most popular types are considered to be subspecies of L. triangulum.  Among the 26 subspecies of L. triangulum  we find the gorgeous and highly-desirable Sinaloan, Pueblan, Nelson’s, Black, and Honduran Milksnakes, along with others that are a bit more difficult to keep but well-worth the consideration of experienced keepers.

Honduran Milksnake

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by :Haplochromis

The following general information can be applied to Milksnake care of both popular species and subspecies.  However, details vary, especially as regards those native to higher elevations or with specific food preferences.  Please post below for detailed information on the care of individual species. Read More »

Reptile Lighting – Understanding and Using Compact UVB Bulbs

Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.  The technology behind amphibian and reptile lighting has come a long way since I began working at the Bronx Zoo, when “black lights” and the sun were our only UVB (Ultra Violet B radiation) options.  Today I’ll review an important herp husbandry innovation, the compact UVB fluorescent bulb (note: bulbs are referred to as “lamps” in technical papers).  My experiences have been positive, but some reptile-keepers have raised concerns, so I’ll address them as well. Please be sure to post your experiences and ideas below, as we still have much to learn about this important topic.

Pancake Tortoises

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Dave Pape

Reptiles, UVB and UVA: a Quick Primer

Most heliothermic (basking) lizards, turtles, and crocodilians need exposure to UVB light rays with a wavelength of 290-315 nanometers in order to synthesize Vitamin D3 in their skin.  Vitamin D3 allows these animals to utilize dietary calcium.  Without D3, dietary calcium is not metabolized and metabolic bone disease sets in.  Snakes, highly-aquatic turtles, nocturnal lizards, most amphibians, and certain others can make use of dietary Vitamin D, but most basking species rely on the skin-synthesized form. Read More »

Chameleon Care Tips from a Herpetologist – Panther Chameleons as Pets

Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.  Chameleons are spectacular creatures to care for, but they are almost “too interesting” for their own good.  Drawn by their beauty and unique-to-bizarre characteristics, many rush into chameleon care without proper preparation.  None are suitable for beginners, but if asked to recommend a large, colorful species to an experienced keeper, I would choose the majestic Panther Chameleon, Furcifer pardalis.  While not as hardy as the Veiled Chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus, the Panther is adapted to environmental conditions that fluctuate wildly, and this seems assist its adjustment to captivity.  It is also an excellent study subject…recent studies have revealed new insights into the relationship between chameleon basking behavior and diet (please see below).

Male Panther Chameleon

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Marc Staub

I’ve worked with many chameleon species in zoos, and can attest to the difficulties involved even when one has sufficient space and supplies.  Please read this article and those linked under “Further Reading” carefully, and post any questions below. Read More »

Emerald Tree Boas in the Wild – Applying Natural History to Pet Care

Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.  The Emerald Tree Boa is extremely popular in zoos and private collections, but its life in the wild remains relatively unstudied.  What little we have learned has come mainly from chance observations rather than long-term studies.  Cryptic coloration, nocturnal ways and a life spent high in tropical forest canopies or dense brush has served to shroud their habits in mystery.  But each bit of knowledge has helped us to better keep and breed this magnificent snake.  For example, studies of the Emerald Tree Boa’s natural habitat have revealed the importance of providing captives with humid but airy enclosures, and temperatures that are somewhat lower than one might expect.

Emerald Tree Boa

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Jyothis

Range

Emerald Tree Boas are native to two distinct but adjacent areas of northern South America – the Guyana or Northern Shield region and the Amazon Basin.  Individuals from each area differ somewhat in appearance, and some have suggested that 2 subspecies should be named.  Corallus batesii has been proposed for the Amazon Basin population by those who believe that 2 distinct species are present.

Description: Differences between the Two Major Populations

Snakes from the Guyana Shield region, which encompasses parts of Surinam, Guyana, French Guiana and Venezuela, are light green in color (often described as “lime green”), and have noticeably larger head scales than do those further south. Read More »

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