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Amphibians as Pets: Care of Common and Unusual Types of Toads

European Green Toad

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by H. Krisp

Children the world over are often introduced to amphibians when they come across their first toad.  Far bolder than typical frogs (and much easier to catch!) most take the indignity of capture by grubby little hands in stride, and leave all who encounter them with a favorable impression.  With few exceptions, however, these droll, long-lived amphibians are relatively ignored by pet-keepers and zoos alike.  After a lifetime of working with dozens of species, I find this hard to understand.  Toads of many species (there are almost 600!) take well to captivity, and often become as responsive as do turtles.  Nearly all feed readily from the hand, and they are frequently described as “charming” by owners.  Many are active by day, while others are quick to discard their nocturnal ways.  I still find American Toads and other common species as fascinating as Kihansi Spray Toads (which produce tiny toadlets rather than eggs!), Blomberg’s Toads and the other rarities I’ve had the pleasure of knowing.

 

Classification

Toads and frogs are classified in the order Anura, which contains 6,396 members.  The world’s 588 toad species are placed in the family Bufonidae.  Toad taxonomy is now in a state of flux, so I’ll mainly stick to common names here…please post below if you would like the Latin name for any species.

 

Asiatic toad

Uploaded to Wikipedia commons by Visviva

Range and Habitat

Toads are native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica, and have adapted to rainforests, deserts, grasslands, meadows, temperate woodlands, cold mountain streams, farms, cloud forests, suburban gardens, city parks, coastal sand dunes and many more.  Despite lacking native species, Australia hosts enormous populations of Marine or Cane Toads.  Released to control cane beetles (a task at which they failed miserably!), Marine Toads now threaten the future of animals ranging from insects to large monitors.

 

Toad Diversity

The USA’s toads are incredibly diverse.  Included among the 35-40 native species is one of the world’s smallest, the inch-long Oak Toad (one of our regular readers is now attempting to breed them; I’ll post updates).  The massive Marine Toad is also a native, but is limited to the lower reaches of the Rio Grande in extreme southern Texas; the Florida population is introduced.  Sharing the Marine Toad’s Texas range is the fabulously-bizarre Mexican Burrowing Toad (Rhinophryrinus dorsalis).  Other US natives that deserve more attention include the gorgeous desert-dwelling Sonoran Green and Red-Spotted Toads, the minute Narrow-Mouthed Toads and the subterranean, gnome-like Spadefoots.

 

Narrow Mouthed Toad

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Eugene van der Pijll

The toad family contains the only live-bearing Anurans (Nectophrynoides and Nimdaphrynoides spp.)   One of these, the Kihansi Spray Toad, was declared extinct in the wild not long ago.  I worked with wild-caught individuals at the Bronx Zoo, and was astonished at the size of the youngsters produced by the females, who themselves did not reach an inch in length!  Happily, they thrived in captivity and have now been re-introduced to the wild; please see the article linked below.

 

Vying with the 9-inch-long Marine Toad for the title of world’s largest species are the striking Blomberg’s and Smooth-Sided Toads.  Species that “break the mold”, in terms of appearance and behavior, include the Argentine Flame-Bellied Toad, which rivals the colors of any Poison Frog, and the long-limbed Climbing Toad.  I’ve had the good fortune to work with each of these, and many other unusual species; please post below for detailed care info.

 

The Terrarium

Your toad’s natural history will dictate the type of terrarium it requires; please post below for specific information.  Terrariums for most should have large land areas and a water bowl.

 

Substrate

Sphagnum moss or, for planted terrariums, a mix of moss, dead leaves and topsoil, works well for forest and meadow adapted species.  Toads may swallow substrate with their meals, although they rarely launch the suicidal lunges typical to many frogs.  In order to limit the possibility of intestinal blockages gravel should be avoided.  Tong or hand feeding is also useful.

 

Climbing Toad

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Daderot

Light

Toads seem not to require UVB radiation, although some keepers believe that low levels may benefit certain diurnal species; the Zoo Med 2.0 UVB Bulb would be a good choice for these.

 

Heat

Temperatures for tropical species should range from 75-82 F.  Toads from temperate regions fare best at 66-74 F.  However, specific needs vary, especially regarding those native to deserts or rainforests; please post any questions below.

 

A fluorescent light may provide enough heat – if not, try a 25 watt incandescent bulb or ceramic heater; these can dry out the substrate, so additional misting may become necessary.

 

Humidity

Humidity needs vary, but even desert dwellers should have access to a moist retreat and easily-exited water bowl.

 

Water Quality

Toads have porous skin patches on the chest and elsewhere and will, therefore, absorb ammonia (released with their waste products) and other harmful chemicals.  As ammonia is extremely lethal, strict attention must be paid to terrarium and water hygiene.

 

Chlorine and chloramine must be removed from water used in toad terrariums.  Liquid preparations are simple to use and very effective.

 

Feeding

Toads are carnivorous and stimulated to feed by movement.  The one surprising exception is the Marine Toad.  In Costa Rica, I came to know one huge individual that would visit our field station each night.  After pushing open the screen door, she would eat table scraps that had been left for a dog!

 

A highly-varied diet is essential.  Crickets alone, even if powdered with supplements, are not an adequate diet for any species.

 

The following should be offered to tiny species such as Narrow-Mouthed Toads and to newly-transformed individuals: fruit flies, 10 day old crickets, springtails, termites, flour beetle grubs, aphids and “field plankton” (insects gathered by sweeping through tall grass with a net).

 

In addition to crickets, earthworms (one of the best foods for most) roaches, sow bugs, waxworms, butterworms, silkworms, houseflies and other invertebrates should be provided.  Insects should themselves be fed a nutritious diet for 1-3 days before being offered to your pets.  Many will accept canned grasshoppers, snails, and silkworms from tongs.

 

Please ignore the You Tube videos of Marine Toads consuming mice. Even in rodent-rich habitats, wild Marine Toads feed primarily upon insects.  While a very occasional pink mouse will do no harm, furred rodents should never be offered.

 

Food should be powdered with Zoo Med ReptiCalcium plus D3 or a similar product.  Vitamin/mineral supplements such as ReptiVite may be used 1-2 times weekly.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio.  I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable.  I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly.  Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

American Toad Care & Natural History

Nutritious Diets for Frogs & Toads

Reptile, Amphibian, Scorpion and Tarantula Feeding Tools

t259648Today I’d like to highlight some interesting feeding tools, automatic feeders, live food dispensers and other products designed for herp and invertebrate keepers.  Included are items that can lighten our work load, ensure safety when feeding aggressive creatures, and automatically provide meals in our absence.  I especially favor products that dispense live insects at irregular intervals, and also those which force turtles, newts and aquatic frogs to work for their food.  This concept, known as behavioral enrichment, became standard zoo-practice while I was working at the Bronx Zoo.  In addition to encouraging exercise, such devices add greatly to the range of interesting behaviors we can observe among our pets.

 

Hanging Mealworm Feeder

The perforated bottom of Zoo Med’s Hanging Mealworm Feeder allows grubs to find their own way into the terrarium.  Mealworms that escape detection will encourage natural hunting behaviors.  Animals of all kinds quickly learn to recognize the feeder…if you remove it when not in use most, will respond right away when it is returned.

 

t259647I’ve employed similar feeders in zoos for a wide range of creatures.  Zoo Med’s modal should also be useful to those who keep oscars and similar fishes, hedgehogs, sugar gliders, finches, shama thrushes, and other insectivorous pets.

 

The first worm feeders were designed to provide tubifex worms to tropical fishes.  I still use the same modal I first purchased as a child…and the price hasn’t gone up much!  In addition to being a great fish-feeding tool, Lee’s Four-Way Worm Feeder is perfect for offering blackworms to newts, axolotls, African clawed frogs and small turtles.

 

Cricket Feeders

Available in 3 sizes, Exo Terra’s Cricket Pen takes much of the hassle out of keeping those pesky but ever-present crickets.  Detachable dispensing tubes, which are used as sheltering sites by crickets, are set into a ventilated, plastic cage.  A flap seals the tubes lower end when it is removed, allowing crickets to be added to terrariums with a tap of the finger.  Cricket food and water receptacles are also included.

 

Depending upon the species and terrarium set-up, you may also be able to simply place the Cricket Pen into your pet’s tank and let the crickets escape on their own.  Covering the pen with dark paper will keep animals from trying to reach crickets through the plastic walls…you should notice an increase in alertness and foraging behavior if you use it in this way.

 

Asian Forest Scorpion

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Chris huh

Feeding Tongs

Gone are the days when we had to modify tweezers and cooking utensils for use as herp-feeding tools.  Zoo Med’s 10-inch Stainless Steel Feeding Tongs is perfect for presenting meals to snakes, scorpions, mantids, and tarantulas, and for removing debris from tanks where one’s fingers are best kept out of reach.

 

As most frogs seem to lack any sort of reasonable control over their feeding lunges, I use Zoo Med’s Plastic Feeding Tongs   when feeding mine (this tendency is not limited to pets – I’ve seen wild American Bullfrogs crash into rocks, and one landed so close to a larger frog that it too wound up as a meal!).  Lizards vary in their feeding responses…over-zealous feeders may injure themselves on metal tongs, while others are not at risk.  You might want to stay with plastic tongs for certain snakes also.

 

Feeding tongs can also be used with various fishes and birds…or, if you’ve been as lucky as I. with captive short-tailed shrews and least weasels (two of the most insanely-ferocious creatures I’ve worked with!).

 

Turtle Feeders

The Zoo Med Floating Turtle Feeder is the best behavioral enrichment -type turtle product on the market.  Amazingly simple in design and easy to use, it will keep sliders, musk turtles, map turtles and similar species well-occupied…and their owners very amused!

 

Exo-Terra’s Automatic Turtle Feeder, similar in design to automatic fish-feeders, is a much-needed addition to the turtle-keeper’s supply kit.

 

You can read more about these useful turtle-feeders in this article.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio.  I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable.  I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly.  Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

Canned Insects and Snails

 

Collecting Insects for Captive Herps

 

Anole Lizard Care, Facts & Behavior

Allison's Anole

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Fil.Al

In terms of the sheer number of species and of individual animals, Anoles may be the most successful of all lizard groups.  Each year, herpetologists add several new discoveries to the total species count – which now stands at 388!  In Anole-rich regions, several seemingly-similar species manage to co-exist in the same habitat…and many thrive in and around towns, farms and even cities.  Their adaptability sometimes leads to staggering population densities, with up to 10,000 Anoles per acre being present on some Caribbean islands!  Intelligence may also play a role in their success, as is shown by this fascinating study .  Many herpers of my generation were introduced to reptile-keeping by the Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis…today we’ll take a look at the fascinating, diverse family to which it belongs.

 

Classification

The world’s 388 Anole species are classified in the family Dactylidae (formerly Iguanidae) and the genus Anolis. 

 

Description

Most Anoles are alert and active, and nearly all have a streamlined body with long tails, limbs and digits.  Males have colorful dewlaps (areas of loose skin below the throat) that are erected during mating and territorial displays. Female Green Anoles, and those of several other species, sport smaller, less colorful dewlaps.  The body color is usually some shade of green, tan or brown, and many are capable of rapid color changes.

 

Leopard Anoles breeding

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Nathalie Colucci

Anoles range in size from the various Twig Anoles, which barely reach 3 inches in length, to Cuba’s Knight Anole, A. equestris, an 18-inch long hunter of treefrogs, lizards, small snakes, and nestling birds.  The Grenada Anole, A. richardi, is also sizable, sometimes exceeding 12 inches in length.  Most Anoles, however, measure 6-8 inches when fully-grown.

 

Range and Habitat

Anoles range from the southern United States through the Caribbean and Mexico to Central and South America.  Mexico is home to over 50 species, while well over 100 occupy various Caribbean islands.  The USA has but a single native, the Green Anole.  However, it is by no means “Anole-poor”, as stowaways and released/escaped pets have resulted in the establishment of breeding populations of at least 9 foreign species!

 

In the USA, all introduced species except the Brown Anole are restricted to Florida, which is now home to Hispaniolan Green, Puerto Rican Crested, Barbados, Marie Gallant Sail-Tailed, Cuban Green, Jamaican Giant, Large-Headed, Bark, and Knight Anoles.  The highly adaptable Brown Anole has managed to extend its range into southern and perhaps central Georgia.  First documented in peninsular Florida in the 1940’s (and likely established earlier in the Florida Keys), the USA’s Brown Anole population is comprised of 2 interbreeding subspecies – the Cuban Brown Anole, Anolis sagrei sagrei and the Bahaman Brown Anole, A. s. ordinatus.

 

Anolis barbatus

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Olaf Leillinger

While ground-dwellers are known, most Anoles are arboreal, with different species (often in the same habitat) favoring reeds, bushes, tree trunks, low limbs, and forest canopies.  Anoles have adapted to life in rainforests, dry forests, cities, farms, suburban yards, arid scrub, swamps, brushy grasslands, riverside thickets, and many other environments.  Some, such as the Cuban Brown Anole, may actually be more common around human dwellings than in their natural habitats.  This highly adaptable lizard has actually been observed to quickly change to an arboreal lifestyle after the introduction of a terrestrial predator (please see this article); many believe that it is also responsible for decline in Florida’s Green Anole population.

 

Anole Care and Feeding

Anoles make wonderful pets, as they are out and about by day, and usually quite active; their group dynamics will keep even the most experienced keeper fascinated.  Many breed year-round if properly cared for, and some may be housed with certain treefrogs, skinks and other animals.  However, the common opinion that Anoles are a “beginner’s” lizard does these fascinating creatures a great disservice.  All Anoles are highly-complex, and have very specific needs that must be met.  Without ample space and cover, proper temperatures, access to UVB and a highly-varied diet, they will not thrive.  Please see the linked articles for detailed information on their care, and be sure to post your questions and observations below.

 

t260596Anoles feed largely upon flies, caterpillars, spiders, beetles and other invertebrates, and many also take over-ripe fruit, nectar and sap.  Larger species, such as the Grenada and Knight Anoles, occasionally add smaller lizards, frogs and snakes to the menu.

 

Anoles are major food items for predators ranging from large spiders to small mammals and birds.  Therefore, most are instinctively wary, and they tend to remain high strung in captivity. While there are exceptions, few take well to handling.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio.  I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable.  I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly.  Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

How to Breed Green Anoles

 

Green Anole Natural History

 

Keeping Cuban and Hispaniolan Green Anoles

My Leopard Gecko Is Not Eating: What To Do

 

 

Adult female

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Jerome66

When cared for properly, Leopard Geckos are among the most hardy and long-lived of all reptile pets.  But apparently-healthy geckos sometimes refuse to feed, or cut back on their intake, and there is still much confusion as to why this occurs.  My work with Leopard Geckos and hundreds of other species in zoos and at home has (I hope!) provided me with some useful insights into this problem.  Some involve areas that any good reptile keeper would investigate – environment, stress levels, disease – while others, such as the effects of circadian rhythms (“internal clocks”), are less obvious.

 

Winter’s Arrival and Internal Rhythms Regulate Eating

Leopard Geckos are native to southeastern Afghanistan, western India, Pakistan, Iraq, and Iran, where they inhabit desert fringes and arid grasslands.  In some parts of this range, temperatures rise to 100+ F in summer and drop below 32 F during the winter.  Wild Leopard Geckos living in environments that experience severe winters become dormant for several months each year, while those in milder regions may remain active (please see the article linked below to read more about their natural history).

 

While your pet is, no doubt, many generations removed from the wild, internal circadian rhythms may cause it to become lethargic and refuse food during the winter.  This can happen even if your gecko is kept warm and given a photo-period of 12-14 hours.  To confuse matters further, some reptiles enter dormancy when winter arrives in their native habitats…even if it happens to be summertime in their present home!  I’ve seen this among Indian Gharials (fish-eating crocodiles) 15 years removed from the wild, and in many others.  Captive Bearded Dragons also exhibit this type of behavior on occasion; please see this article.

 

leopard geckoUnfortunately, it’s not often possible to be certain that a pet has stopped feeding due to the effects of an internal rhythm, so be sure to check the other possibilities discussed below.

 

Next I’ll mention other things that should be checked if your gecko stops feeding, including husbandry (tank set-up, temperatures, diet, etc.), stress, and disease.  I’ve written on each of these in further detail in the linked articles.

 

Your Gecko’s Environment

As Leopard Geckos are nocturnal, it’s important to monitor nighttime temperatures, especially during the winter, when most people lower their home thermostats.  The ambient air temperature should range from 78-84 F, which can be maintained by a ceramic heater or red/black reptile “night bulb”; a below-tank heat mat should be positioned so that one corner of the tank is warmer (88 F) than the rest.  Be sure also to establish a thermal gradient (areas of different temperatures) so that your gecko can regulate its body temperature as needed.

 

tPG01794While Leopard Geckos often adapt to smaller enclosures than do other lizards, individuals vary in their response to crowding.  Moving your pet to a larger terrarium may help, and this will also make it easier for you to establish a thermal gradient (small terrariums tend to remain at the temperature of the basking site).

 

And, no matter how well-adjusted or bold your pet may be, it’s important to provide a dark, secure cave or other shelter.  Geckos forced to remain exposed often cease feeding.

 

Diet

Wild Leopard Geckos feed upon a huge array of invertebrates, while pets are often limited to 2-3 food items.  Dietary variety is important for health reasons.  But providing different types of insects can also incite new interest in feeding.  We see this most commonly in chameleons, but the enthusiasm your Leopard Geckos will show for novel foods will leave you with no doubt as to their value.  Please see this article to read more about adding silkworms, house flies, sow bugs, wild-caught insects and other important foods to your pet’s diet.

 

Stress Can Affect Eating

Geckos may be stressed by the mere presence of a dominant cage-mate, even absent fighting.  If you suspect aggression, observe your geckos after dark, when they will be most active (a red/black reptile bulb will prove useful).  Appetite-suppressing aggression is especially common among young geckos that are being raised in groups.

 

Locating the terrarium in a noisy part of the house, or where there are vibrations from machinery, may also depress appetites and contribute to other health concerns.

 

Disease and other Health Issues

Impactions from substrate swallowed with meals and Metabolic Bone Disease are two of the more common reasons that geckos cease feeding.

 

Other health concerns that have been identified include Hyperthyroidism, Eyelid Lining Retention (following shedding) and Cryptosporidiosis.  Internal or external parasites, and a host of other less common ailments, should also be investigated if your pet stops eating.  Please post below if you need help in locating a reptile experienced veterinarian.

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio.  I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable.  I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly.  Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

The Leopard Gecko in the Wild

 

The Ideal Leopard Gecko Terrarium 

 

Cold Weather Tips for Reptile, Amphibian & Invertebrate Owners

Sungazer

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Eric Johnston

Whether you keep a single, cold-hearty Common Snapping Turtle or a large collection of tropical lizards, frogs and tarantulas, cold winter weather brings certain challenges.  This is especially true for those of us who, in the interests of environmental and financial responsibility, do not wish to super-heat our homes in order to satisfy our pets’ needs.  While working at the Bronx Zoo, I always sought the advice of our staff electricians when faced with heating issues.  Today I’ll review what I’ve learned there concerning various types of heating devices, cage material and location, insulation and other topics that take on special importance when temperatures drop.

 

Seek Professional Advice

I always advise herp keepers facing extreme winters to speak with an experienced electrician.  Most of us know a great deal about our pets’ needs and the available heating products, but as “electricians” we are usually “self-taught” (not a term that should be used in connection with electricity!).  Incorporating an electrician’s expertise will save time, money and, most importantly, assure our safety.

 

Concerning safety, please be aware that free-roaming dogs, cats, ferrets, tortoises, iguanas and other pets cause a number of fires each year (pushing papers and other flammable items close to heaters and bulbs, knocking over heaters, etc.).  I have first-hand knowledge of several such incidents, as well as others caused by improperly-located heat bulbs…please exercise caution.

 

Be sure to show your electrician the bulbs and other equipment that you use, and request guidance concerning safe distances from plants and other flammable objects, extension cord use, etc.  Don’t forget thermostats and rheostats – I was surprised to learn that these can sometimes drain enough power to interfere with the functioning of heaters and bulbs.

 

t246145Room Temperature and Cage Location

Room temperature will greatly affect you choice of heating equipment.  As most folks lower their heat at night, be sure to monitor temperatures at this time.  Oil-filled radiators may be a useful option, especially if you house your collection in a single room.

 

It’s important to have a detailed temperature profile of the rooms in which your terrariums and cages are located.  The Zoo Med Digital Infrared Thermometer  provides a simple, effective means of accomplishing this.  Pointing the thermometer at an area or surface will give an instant temperature readout, allowing you to identify the warmest and coolest places in the room. While exterior walls, floors and window areas are obvious cool spots, each home is different, so be sure to check carefully.  A simple terrarium re-location may save time, effort and money.

 

Terrarium ambient and basking temperatures should be carefully monitored, day and night; a huge array of herp-specific thermometers greatly simplifies this task.  Zoo Med’s Hygrotherm Humidity and Temperature Controller and other light and heater timers can help create healthful environments while cutting heating costs.

 

Iguana basking

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Paul Kehrer

Insulating Terrariums and Cages

Insulation is not often used by herp and invertebrate keepers, but I urge you to look into the many possibilities.  I first discovered insulation during a power outage, and was surprised by the results I achieved.  I’ve since met several people who significantly cut their heating costs by lining terrarium and cages walls with various insulating materials.  Styrofoam, cork panels, polyethylene, polystyrene, foil fiberglass, bubble wrap and other home insulating materials  may all be put to good use.  Towels and blankets can be pressed into service during emergencies.

 

Wood and Masonite-sided cages will retain heat more effectively than glass, but all can be improved by the addition of insulation.  If such does not compromise your pet’s health, relocation to a smaller, more easily-heated enclosure might be worthwhile.

 

Bulbs and Heaters

Ceramic heat emitters, heat bulbs, under-tank heaters, red/black night bulbs and heat tapes are the most commonly-used heating devices.  Each provides heat in a different manner, although in certain respects there are overlaps as well.  The species you keep, your home’s temperature profile, and the characteristics of your pet’s enclosure will determine which method (or methods) should be used.  Please post below for specific information pertaining to your collection.

 

Slimy Salamander

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Patrick Coin

Species Choice

If you live in an area that experiences extremely cold winters (or hot summers), you may wish to tailor your collection accordingly.  For example, axolotls, spotted and slimy salamanders, wood frogs and many other temperate zone amphibians are quite content at 55 F (fire salamanders that I attempted to chill down remained active at 40 F), but many do poorly when temperatures rise above 70 F.  Common musk turtles, northern five-lined skinks, Eastern garter snakes and other reptiles that range into cooler regions are also relatively easy to maintain during cold winters.  There’s certainly no shortage of interesting, cold-hearty species, and many are in need of study and captive breeding efforts.

 

Hibernation/Brumation

A cooling off period during the winter can be beneficial for those species that experience dormancy in the wild, and is often essential to breeding success.  However, this step must not be undertaken lightly, and details vary by species.  Please post below for specific information on the animals in your collection.

 

Emergencies and Power Outages

Hand warmers and battery-operated aerators (for aquatic amphibians and fishes) should be available for use during power outages. I’ve not used a generator at home, but relied upon them several times during my years working at the Bronx Zoo…well-worth investigating.

 

Chilled reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates should be gradually warmed, not immediately placed at their optimal temperatures.  Heating pads are very handy in these situations.  Please post any questions or observations below.

 

Hi, my name is Frank Indiviglio.  I’m a herpetologist, zoologist, and book author, recently retired from a career spent at several zoos, aquariums, and museums, including over 20 years with the Bronx Zoo.

 

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable.  I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

 

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly.  Thanks, until next time, Frank.

 

Further Reading

The Best Infrared Temperature Gun for herp Terrariums

 

Hibernation/Brumation: Bearded Dragons and other Reptiles

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