Home | Snakes | The King Cobra or Hamadryad, Ophiophagus hannah – natural history and zoological park husbandry – Part 2

The King Cobra or Hamadryad, Ophiophagus hannah – natural history and zoological park husbandry – Part 2

To read the first part of this article, click here.
Field Research on Nesting King Cobras
Famed herpetologist Romulus Whitaker took on the “quite invigorating” as he put it, task of disturbing nesting king cobras to determine just how far their protective instincts extended. He was early on in the research when last we spoke, but found that most retreated after an extended threat display – I imagine that the display of an angry king cobra serves well-enough to dissuade adversaries less-determined than the unshakable Mr. Whitaker!

Captive Breeding – my experience
The king cobra’s taste for other snakes complicates breeding efforts in zoos. During my years as a zoo keeper I experienced several successes and failures. I once housed a pair in adjoining exhibits, separated by a screen panel, for 3 months in order to gauge their reactions to each other. They seemed to get along well and, indeed, co-habited peacefully for several weeks. Always well fed, there were no signs of aggression. Unfortunately, however, there was also no sign of the female one morning – the 12 foot long male had swallowed all 8 feet of her – quite a feat even for a snake!

Working With King Cobras
Although rumored to be aggressive in nature, king cobras often (but not always!) flee when confronted by humans if given the opportunity. Captives are, however, extremely alert and seem, at least upon casual observation, to evince learning abilities not possessed by other snakes. I have always preferred to house them in exhibits equipped with shift cages, into which the snake may be secured before I entered the exhibit – they are just too fast to work with close at hand (my predecessors at the Bronx Zoo seemed to feel likewise – in an old storage area I came across an old wooden “cobra shield” – I like to think it may have been used by the eminent Raymond Ditmars, first reptile curator at the Bronx Zoo). When shifts are not available, I exercise extreme caution and, as with all venomous snakes, alert co-workers of my whereabouts.

King cobras are notorious escape artists, even for snakes, and the cause of much lost sleep in the zoo world. Some years ago a major zoo was closed down for 3 days while an escaped specimen was at large (it was, luckily, re-captured without incident). I’ll relate my own experience with 3 escaped spitting cobras in a future article.

Cobra Classification and Venom
King cobras and the 300 or so other members of the family Elapidae are known as “Proteroglyphous Snakes” – a term referring to the fact that their hollow, venom conducting teeth (fangs) are fixed in position and cannot be erected as can those of the vipers and their relatives (the Solenoglyphus Snakes).

Cobras inject venom by biting and employing a chewing motion, and cannot utilize the stab and release action of the vipers. The venom of most species is highly effective, and large specimens can deliver huge quantities of venom in a single bite. It is often said that an adult king cobra may carry enough venom to “kill a small elephant” – while that is difficult to quantify, a cobra of any species is a most dangerous animal.

Other Cobras and Their Relatives
Elapids reach their greatest diversity in Australia, dominating the snake fauna there. There are over 50 species in the Americas, with coral snakes being the only representatives found in the USA. Arboreal, aquatic and burrowing forms occur in Africa and Asia. Several African cobras can eject venom at the eyes of enemies (they hunt in usual cobra fashion), an adaptation to life in grasslands populated by large hoofed mammals. Sea snakes, kraits and mambas are related to cobras and also classified as Elapids.

The Cobras’ Hood
The defensive display of cobras involves rearing up and flaring out a wide hood of skin about the head and upper body. This is accomplished by raising a series of elongated ribs, which in turn stretch the skin between them to form the hood. A large king cobra may raise over 4 feet of its body from the ground when agitated – a most impressive (and convincing!) display.

Information concerning king cobras in India is posted at:
http://www.india-wildlife-tours.com/wild-animals-in-india/indian-wildlife-king-cobra.html
I am interested to hear about your observations of cobras in the wild or zoos…please write in with these or any questions you may have. Thanks, until next time, Frank

2 comments

  1. avatar

    sorry to say that the pic is of a common cobra, nt of a King Cobra. Thank You.

  2. avatar
    Frank Indiviglio

    Hello Anju,

    Thank you for your comment and sharp eyes – that one slipped past me somehow.

    Did you have in mind one of the many subspecies of Naja naja? From the angle of the photo it is a bit difficult for me to be sure, but there are so many races that it very well could be. I am wondering also if perhaps it could be a red spitting cobra, N. pallida? I’ll see if I can locate some background information on the photo and will get back to you.

    Your interest is much appreciated; I look forward to your future correspondence.

    Best, Frank

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About Frank Indiviglio

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Being born with a deep interest in animals might seem unfortunate for a native Bronxite , but my family encouraged my interest and the menagerie that sprung from it. Jobs with pet stores and importers had me caring for a fantastic assortment of reptiles and amphibians. After a detour as a lawyer, I was hired as a Bronx Zoo animal keeper and was soon caring for gharials, goliath frogs, king cobras and everything in-between. Research has taken me in pursuit of anacondas, Orinoco crocodiles and other animals in locales ranging from Venezuela’s llanos to Tortuguero’s beaches. Now, after 20+ years with the Bronx Zoo, I am a consultant for several zoos and museums. I have spent time in Japan, and often exchange ideas with zoologists there. I have written books on salamanders, geckos and other “herps”, discussed reptile-keeping on television and presented papers at conferences. A Master’s Degree in biology has led to teaching opportunities. My work puts me in contact with thousands of hobbyists keeping an array of pets. Without fail, I have learned much from them and hope, dear readers, that you will be generous in sharing your thoughts on this blog and web site. For a complete biography of my experience click here.
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